A pollutant is defined as any form of energy or matter or action that causes a state of disequilibrium from the state of equilibrium in any existing natural ecosystem. Pollutants are those unnecessary materials that are barely degradable and cause harmful effects to the environment.


On the basis of source of genesis

  • Natural Pollutants e.g.-. CO2, OZONE
  • Man-Made Pollutants- NOx, Sox, PAN peroxyl acetal nitrate, etc.


On the basis of visibility

  • Visible Pollutants e.g. E-waste.
  • Invisible Pollutants e.g. Suspended Particulate matter, Fine particles of ash, other harmful gases, etc.
On the basis of their state

  • Solid Particulate e.g. Plastic pollution
  • Gaseous Particulate- CO2, NO2, etc.
  • Liquid Particulate- Wastewater, chemicals, etc.


Natural sources of pollution:

This includes volcanic ashes and dust, undesirable substances brought to the surface due to seismic activities, flood water, etc.


Anthropogenic sources of pollution:

This includes:

  • Industrial Source: Industries emits gaseous pollutants like methane, carbon monoxide, sulfur, etc. solid pollutants, wastewater, etc.
  • Urban Source: It includes sewage water, plastics, e-waste, solid wastes, etc.
  • Agricultural Source: This pollution is related to fertilizers, pesticides, and insecticides.
  • Population Source: On the average increase in the population of a nation has been positively correlated with pollution.


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