Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QSD) or Quad is an informal strategic forum among like-minded democracies across the Indian and the Pacific Ocean aimed to ensure and support a “free, open and prosperous” Indo-Pacific region. It comprises of the USA, India, Japan and Australia.
The grouping traces its genesis to 2004 when the four countries came together to coordinate relief operations in the aftermath of the tsunami.
However, the idea of Quad was initiated in 2007 by the Japanese Prime Minister. But it was dropped with the withdrawal of Australia. It was later revived in the year 2017.
Objective: It is viewed as a group of four democracies. They have a shared objective to ensure and support a free, open, and prosperous Indo-Pacific region.
The foundation of Quad is also based on collective effort and shared commitment to counter-terrorism, humanitarian assistance, and disaster relief, maritime security cooperation, development finance, and cybersecurity.
The Quadrilateral coalition was refurbished as ‘QUAD 2.0’ in 2017 on the lines of the ASEAN Summit. Quad meetings are taking place on a biannual basis.