Q. Consider the following pairs:
Region                 Name as per Mesopotamian text
1. Oman                             Magan
2. Bahrain                           Dilmun
3. Harappan Region         Meluhha
How many of the above given pairs is/are correctly matched?

[A] One pair only

[B] Two Pairs only

[C] All Three pairs

[D] None

Answer: C

Explanation: Indus Valley Civilisation:

  • Contact with distant lands
  • Recent archaeological finds suggest that copper was also probably brought from Oman, on the southeastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula.
  • Chemical analyses have shown that both the Omani copper and Harappan artefacts have traces of nickel, suggesting a common origin. There are other traces of contact as well.
  • A distinctive type of vessel, a large Harappan jar coated with a thick layer of black clay has been found at Omani sites. Such thick coatings prevent the percolation of liquids.
  • Mesopotamian texts datable to the third millennium BCE refer to copper coming from a region called Magan, perhaps a name for Oman, and interestingly enough copper found at Mesopotamian sites also contains traces of nickel.
  • Other archaeological finds suggestive of long distance contacts include Harappan seals, weights, dice and beads.
  • In this context, it is worth noting that Mesopotamian texts mention contact with regions named Dilmun (probably the island of Bahrain), Magan and Meluhha, possibly the Harappan region.
  • They mention the products from Meluhha: carnelian,lapis lazuli, copper, gold, and varieties of wood.
  • It is likely that communication with Oman, Bahrain or Mesopotamia was by sea. Mesopotamian texts refer to Meluhha as a land of seafarers. Besides, we find depictions of ship sand boats on seals.

Source: Themes in Indian History