Q. Consider the following pairs:
1. MuqtisHolder of Iqta’s
2. KhalisaTemple land grants
3. Hashm-i-qalbCommunity lands
Which of the above given pair is/are correctly NOT matched?

[A] 1 only

[B] 1 and 2 only

[C] 1 and 3 only

[D] 2 and 3 only

Answer: D

The Delhi Sultanate deserves to be considered an all-India empire.  

  • Virtually all of India, except Kashmir and Kerala at the far ends of the subcontinent, and a few small tracts in between them had come under the direct rule of Delhi towards the close of Muhammad bin Tughlaq’s rule.  
  • There were no well-defined and accepted rules of royal succession and therefore contested succession became the norm during the Sultanate.  
  • The Sultans required the holders of iqta’s (called muqtis or walis) to maintain troops for royal service out of the taxes collected by them.  
  • Certain areas were retained by the Sultans under their direct control (khalisa).  
  • It was out of the revenue collected from such areas that they paid the officers and soldiers of the sultan’s own troops (hashm-i qalb). 

Source: Tamil Nadu state board.