Q. Consider the following provisions:
1. Directive Principles of State Policy
2. Election of the President and its manner
3. Salaries and allowances of the members of Parliament
Which of the provisions given above is/are amended by a special majority of Parliament?
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

[A] 1 and 2 only

[B] 1 only

[C] 2 and 3 only

[D] 1 and 3 only

Answer: B


  • The majority of the provisions in the Constitution need to be amended by a special majority of the Parliament, that is, a majority (that is, more than 50 per cent) of the total membership of each House and a majority of two-thirds of the members of each House present and voting.
  • The expression ‘total membership’ means the total number of members comprising the House irrespective of fact whether there are vacancies or absentees.
  • ‘Strictly speaking, the special majority is required only for voting at the third reading stage of the bill but by way of abundant caution the requirement for special majority has been provided for in the rules of the Houses in respect of all the effective stages of the bill’.

The provisions which can be amended by this way include:

  • Fundamental Rights;
  • Directive Principles of State Policy; and
  • All other provisions which are not covered by the first and third categories.

Source: Indian Polity by Laxmikanth