Q. Consider the following statements:
1. Cyprus, the Archaemadian ruler of Iran was contemporary to Bindusara.
2. Darius – I conquered Indus valley as a whole & annexed Punjab & Sindh.
3. Darius – I employed Indian infantry & cavalry in the war against Greece.
Which of the following statements is/are correct?

[A] 1 and 2 only

[B] 2 and 3 only

[C] 2 only

[D] 1, 2 and 3

Answer: C

Explanation: Persian Invasions:

Cyrus (558 – 530 B.C):

  • Cyrus the Great was the greatest conqueror of the Achaemenian Empire. He was the first conqueror who led an expedition and entered into India. He captured the Gandhara region.
  • All Indian tribes to the west of the Indus river submitted to him and paid tribute. His son Cambyses had no time to pay attention towards India.

Darius I (522 – 486 B.C.)

  • Darius I, the grandson of Cyrus, conquered the Indus valley in 518 B.C. and annexed the Punjab and Sindh. This region became the 20th Satrapy of his empire. It was the most fertile and populous province of the Achaemenian Empire. Darius sent a naval expedition under Skylas to explore the Indus.

Xerxes (465-456 B.C.)

  • Xerxes utilized his Indian province to strengthen his position.
  • He deployed Indian infantry and cavalry to Greece to fight his opponents. But they retreated after Xerxes faced a defeat in Greece.
  • After this failure, the Achaemenians could not follow a forward policy in India. However, the Indian province was still under their control.
  • Darius III enlisted Indian soldiers to fight against Alexander in 330 B.C. It is evident that the control of Persians slackened on the eve of Alexander’s invasion of India.

Source: Tamil Nadu state Board Class 11