Q. Consider the following statements:
1. Stalactites rise up from the floor of the caves.
2. Stalagmites are structures formed from mineral deposits that hang from caves.
Which of the above given statements is/are correct?

[A] 1 only

[B] 2 only

[C] Both 1 and 2

[D] Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: D

Stalactite and Stalagmite are depositional landforms in a cave. A stalactite is an icicle-shaped formation that hangs from the ceiling of a cave, and is produced by precipitation of minerals from water dripping through the cave ceiling. Most stalactites have pointed tips.

A stalagmite is an upward-growing mound of mineral deposits that have precipitated from water dripping onto the floor of a cave. Most stalagmites have rounded or flattened tips.

There are many other types of mineral formations found in caves. For example, flowstones are deposits of minerals from water flowing over the floor or walls of a cave. As layers of flowstone become thicker, their shape becomes rounded. Well-defined crystals growing underwater in cave pools are known as pool spar.

Some deposits are named based on their appearance, such as a showerhead, which is a hollow cone-shaped formation, narrow above and broad below. Showerheads are generally only found in tropical caves. A conulite is a ―splash cup‖ that forms when water dripping rapidly through the cave ceiling flings aside loose particles on the cave floor.

Source: NCERT