Q. Consider the following statements about Dual government in Bengal:
1. After battle of plassey East India Company became the real masters of Bengal.
2. The Company exercised diwani rights and the nizamat rights directly under the governor.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[A] 1 only

[B] 2 only

[C] Both 1 and 2

[D] Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: D
Notes:

After the battle of Buxar, the East India Company became the real masters of Bengal.

· Robert Clive introduced the dual system of government, i.e., the rule of the two—the Company and the Nawab—in Bengal in which both the diwani, i.e., collecting revenues, and nizamat, i.e., police and judicial functions, came under the control of the Company.

· The Company exercised diwani rights as the diwan and the nizamat rights through its right to nominate the deputy subahdar.

· The Company acquired the diwani functions from the emperor and nizamat functions from the subahdar of Bengal.

· The system held a great advantage for the Company. It left the appearance of authority to the puppet Indian ruler, while keeping the sovereign power in the hands of the Company.

· The nawab was responsible for maintaining peace and order, but he depended both for funds and forces upon the Company because the latter controlled the army and revenues.

· For the exercise of diwani functions, the Company appointed two deputy diwans, Mohammad Reza Khan for Bengal and Raja Sitab Roy for Bihar.

· Mohammad Reza Khan also acted as deputy nazim or deputy subahdar.

Source: Spectrum’s A Brief History of Modern India.