Q. Consider the following statements regarding Research and Development (R&D) in India:
1.The Gross domestic expenditure on R&D as the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) is around 1.2%.
2.India is a low spender in comparison to the developed countries and emerging economic powers of East Asia.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
Explanation: The Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) is around 0.7%. The percentage expenditure for the last couple of years has shown a downward trend.
- According to a report (2020) prepared by the Department of Science and Technology (DST); of the funding allocated to R&D in 2017-18, 61.4% of the amount went to DRDO (31.6%), Departments of Space (19%) and Atomic Energy (10.8%) together.
- Approximately 37% was allocated to the general R&D agencies like the ICAR, CSIR, DST, DBT, ICMR etc. while only 0.9% was allocated to R&D in electronics, IT and renewable energy.
- India is a low spender (only 0.66% of the GDP) in comparison to the developed countries and emerging economic powers of East Asia. In fact, India’s expenditure on R&D is lower than Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
- In most of the developed capitalist countries, defense-related R&D is undertaken by the private sector. In India, this expenditure is mostly borne by public funding.