Q. Consider the following statements:
1. Arch, dome, vaults and use of lime cement are the striking Saracenic features that were introduced by the Arabs.
2. A pleasure resort at Hauz Khas of Firuz Tughlaq is purely a building complex of Saracenic feature.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[A] 1 only

[B] 2 only

[C] Both 1 and 2

[D] Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: C

Arch, dome, vaults and use of lime cement, the striking Saracenic features, were introduced in India by Arabs.  

  • The use of marble, red, grey and yellow sandstones added grandeur to the buildings. In the beginning the Sultans converted the existing buildings to suit their needs.  
  • Qutb-ud-din Aibak’s Quwwat-ul- Islam mosque situated adjacent to Qutb Minar in Delhi and the Adhai din ka Jhopra in Ajmer illustrate these examples.  
  • A Hindu temple built over a Jain temple was modified into Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque.  Adhai din ka Jhopra was earlier a Jain monastery before being converted as a mosque.  
  • With the arrival of artisans from West Asia the arch and dome began to show up with precision and perfection.  
  • Gradually local artisans also acquired the skill. The tomb of Balban was adorned with the first true arch and the Alai Darwaza built by Alaud- din Khalji as a gateway to the Quwwatul- Islam Mosque is adorned with the first true dome.  
  • The palace fortress built by Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq and Muhammad bin Tughlaq in Tughlaqabad, their capital city in Delhi, is remarkable for creating an artificial lake around the fortress by blocking the river Yamuna.  
  • The tomb of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq introduced the system of sloping walls bearing the dome on a raised platform. 
  • The buildings of Firuz Tughlaq, especially his pleasure resort, Hauz Khas, combined Indian and Saracenic features in alternate storeys, displaying a sense of integration. 

Source: Tamil Nadu state board.