Q. Consider the following:
1. Bacteria
2. Fungi
3. Virus
Which of the above can be cultured in artificial/synthetic medium?

[A] 1 and 2 only

[B] 2 and 3 only

[C] 1 and 3 only

[D] 1, 2 and 3

Answer: A
Notes:

Why this Question) Commercial use of Bacteria and Fungi, also viruses in news. 

Ans) a 

Exp) Option a is correct.  

Statement 1 is correct. Bacteria can be grown in synthetic culture media. Researchers a had rewritten the DNA of the bacteria Escherichia coli, fashioning a synthetic genome four times larger and far more complex than any previously created.  

Statement 2 is correct. Fungi can be grown in synthetic culture media. Four allergologically important fungi, viz. Aspergillus fumigatus, Alternaria Penicillium notatum, and Cladosporium herbarum, were cultured in a pure synthetic medium.  

Statement 3 is incorrect. Viruses lack metabolic machinery of their own and are totally dependent on their host cell for replication, they cannot be grown in synthetic culture media. 

Source:  https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/15/science/synthetic-genome-bacteria.html  

https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1007019  

https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Microbiology/Book%3A_Microbiology_(Kaiser)/Unit_4%3A_Eukaryotic_Microorganisms_and_Viruses/10%3A_Viruses/10.01%3A_General_Characteristics_of_Viruses#:~:text=Viruses%20can%20infect%20animals%2C%20plants,grown%20in%20synthetic%20culture%20media 

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/4091234/ 

 Subject) Science