Q. How is permaculture farming different from conventional chemical farming?
1. Permaculture farming discourages monocultural practical but in conventional chemical farming, monoculture practices are pre-dominant.
2. Conventional chemical farming can cause increase in soil salinity but the occurrence of such phenomenon is not observed in permaculture farming.
3. Conventional chemical farming is easily possible in semi-arid regions but permaculture farming is not so easily possible in such regions.
4. Practice of mulching is very important in permaculture farming but not necessarily so in conventional chemical farming.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[A] 1 and 3

[B] 1, 2 and 4

[C] 4 only

[D] 2 and 3

Answer: B
Notes:

Why this Question: Has been news as the focus shifted towards a more sustainable agriculture. 

https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ludhiana/reduce-paddy-save-pb-campaign-propagates-permaculture-to-save-groundwater/articleshow/83620220.cms 

https://www.hindustantimes.com/ht-insight/climate-change/sustainable-agriculture-what-we-know-and-how-to-scale-up-101626535232859.html 

Ans) b 

Exp) Option b is correct. 

Statement 1 is correct. Permaculture is a totally integrated design system that’s modelled on nature. Permaculture farming promotes multicropping and integrated farming systems. Agroforestry is its example.  

Chemical farming is more suitable for monoculture cropping due to use of crop specific inputs like irrigation, chemical fertiliser and harvesting methods.  

Statement 2 is correct. Chemical fertilizers will make the soil less fertile over time, which can lead to serious problems like soil salinisation. But such problems are not seen in permaculture farming as it relies on organic fertilizers.  

Statement 3 is incorrect. Chemical farming is based on intense use of inputs like Chemical fertilizers and irrigation that make the soil less fertile over time, thus restricting its practise in semi-arid region. Thus, conventional farming is not suitable for semi-arid regions 

The concept of permaculture involves well-designed systems dont produce waste and permaculture tries to mimic well-designed systems. Thus, permaculture tries to take into account the local conditions like arid climate. This helps in developing a suitable system to ensure sustainable production.  

Statement 4 is correct. Mulching is an important component of Permaculture systems for promoting maximum efficiency.  

Chemical farming does not consider it as essential, so farmers in general do not use mulching.  

Knowledge Base:  

The philosophy behind permaculture was developed in 1970s in Australia by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren. The land is called Tamera, the name given to these 330 acres in southern Portugal by a community of 30 people who moved here from Germany in 1995. Through simple practices of digging swales (ditches) and creating water retention spaces, Tameras ecology experts have transformed an area on the brink of desertification.  

Source:  https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2017/mar/07/tamera-portugal-permaculture-water   

https://grocycle.com/permaculture-farming/#Common_Permaculture_Practices 

 Subject) Environment