Q. In the nature, which of the following is/are most likely to be found surviving on a surface without soil?
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
Why this Question) Basic environment data. First Lichen Park in Uttarakhand in news.
Exp) Option c is correct.
1) Lichens have specific requirements for their habitats. These requirements are: water, air, nutrients, light, and substrates. Every lichen lives on top of something else. The surface of that “something else” is called a substrate. Just about anything that holds still long enough for a lichen to attach to and grow is a suitable substrate. Trees, rocks, soil, houses, tombstones, cars, old farm equipment and more can be substrates. The most common natural substrates are trees and rocks.
2) Mosses are non-flowering plants which produce spores and have stems and leaves, but don’t have true roots. So, without roots, some moss suck nutrients up through the rhizoids and others draw in moisture and minerals from rain and the water around them through their highly absorbent surfaces. It often grows from trees, absorbing water and nutrients from the atmosphere, but with proper care it can also grow indoors.
3) Fern is a member of a group of vascular plants (plants with xylem and phloem). They grow in soils. There are four particular types of habitats that ferns are found in: moist, shady forests; crevices in rock faces, especially when sheltered from the full sun; acid wetlands including bogs and swamps; and tropical trees.
4) A mushroom or toadstool is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground, on soil, or on its food source.
Source: Lichen Habitat (fs.fed.us)