Q. In the nature, which of the following is/are most likely to be found surviving on a surface without soil?
1. Fern
2. Lichen
3. Moss
4. Mushroom
Select the correct answer using the code given below.

[A] 1 and 4 only

[B] 2 only

[C] 2 and 3

[D] 1, 3 and 4

Answer: C
Notes:

Why this Question) Basic environment data. First Lichen Park in Uttarakhand in news. 

Ans) c 

Exp) Option c is correct. 

1) Lichens have specific requirements for their habitats.These requirements are: water, air, nutrients, light, and substrates. Every lichen lives on top of something else. The surface of that “something else” is called a substrate. Just about anything that holds still long enough for a lichen to attach to and grow is a suitable substrate. Trees, rocks, soil, houses, tombstones, cars, old farm equipment and more can be substrates. The most common natural substrates are trees and rocks. 

licane 1

2) Mosses are non-floweringplantswhich produce spores and havestemsand leaves, but don’t have true roots.So,without roots, some moss sucknutrients upthrough the rhizoidsand others draw in moisture and minerals from rain and the water around themthrough their highly absorbent surfaces. It often grows from trees, absorbing water and nutrients from the atmosphere, but with proper care it can also grow indoors. 

licane 2

3) Fern is a member of a group ofvascular plants(plants withxylemandphloem). They grow in soils. There are four particular types of habitats that ferns are found in: moist, shadyforests; crevices in rock faces, especially when sheltered from the full sun; acid wetlands includingbogsandswamps; and tropicaltrees. 

licane 3

4) Amushroomortoadstoolis the fleshy,spore-bearingfruiting bodyof afungus, typically produced above ground, on soil, or on itsfoodsource. 

 licane 4

Source:  Lichen Habitat (fs.fed.us) 

do mushrooms require soil – Google Search 

Mushroom – Wikipedia 

8 Plants Without Soil You Can Grow at Home – Bob Vila 

Subject) Environment