Q. In which of the following ways do the birds contribute to the various ecosystem services?:
1.Pest control
3.Seed dispersers
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:

[A] 1 and 2 only

[B] 2 and 3 only

[C] .1 and 3 only

[D] 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D
  • Birds contribute toward many ecosystem servicesthat either directly or indirectly benefit humanity. These include provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services.
  • Thefunctional role of birds within ecosystems as pollinators, seed-dispersers, ecosystem engineers, scavengers and predators facilitates accrual and maintenance of biodiversity. It also supports human endeavours such as sustainable agriculture via pest control, besides aiding other animals to multiply.
  • Thecultural role of birds is perhaps more important than any other taxonomic group, the study says. Beyond its symbolic and artistic values, birdwatching is a global pastime practised by millions of people.