Q. India’s climate is most affected by which of the following two winds?
The climate of India is described as a monsoon type. This type of climate is found in south and south-east Asia. However, there are variations in climatic conditions in the country itself. The coastal regions of India show the least amount of difference between the temperatures of night and day. In the interior regions, the difference in temperatures of day and night is huge.
The climate of India depends greatly on monsoon winds. The monsoons usually happen due to the differential heating of land and water.
- The Advancing Monsoon (Rainy Season) or South west Monsoon: By early June, the trade winds of the southern winds bring abundant moisture to the country. The windward side of the Western Ghats receives very heavy rainfall, more than 250 cm. The monsoon is known for its uncertainties. While it causes heavy floods in one part, it may be responsible for droughts in the other. It is also irregular in arrival and retreat.
- Retreating Monsoons (Transition Season) or North-east Monsoon: During October-November, the monsoons become weaker. The sun moves towards the south. By the beginning of October, monsoon withdraws from the Northern Plains. There is a transition from hot rainy season to dry winter season.
Source: NCERT – XI India Physical Environment