Q. To realize the objectives of land reforms, the government took which of the following step/steps?
1.Abolition of Intermediaries
2.Tenancy reforms
3.Consolidation of land
Choose the correct answer from below given codes:

[A] 1 only

[B] 1 and 2 only

[C] 1 and 3 only

[D] 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Explanation: To realise the objectives of land reforms, the government took three main steps which had many internal sub-steps:

  1. Abolition of Intermediaries: Under this step, the age-old exploitative land tenure systems of the Zamindari, Mahalwari and Ryotwari were fully abolished.
  2. Tenancy Reforms: Under this broader step, three inter-related reforms protecting the land tenants were affected:
  • Regulation of rent so that a fixed and rational rate of rent could be paid by the share-croppers to the land owners;
  • Security of tenure so that a share-cropper could feel secure about his future income and his economic security; and
  • Ownership rights to tenants so that the landless masses (i.e., the tenants, the share-croppers) could get the final rights for the land they plough — “land to the tillers”.
  1. Reorganization of Agriculture: This step again has many inter-related and highly logical provisions in the direction of rational agrarian reforms:
  • Redistribution of land among the landless poor masses after promulgating timely ceiling laws—the move failed badly with few exceptions, such as West Bengal, Kerala and partially in Andhra Pradesh.
  • Consolidation of land could only succeed in the regions of the Green Revolution (i.e., Haryana, Punjab and western Uttar Pradesh) and remained marred with many loopholes and corruption.
  • Cooperative farming, which has a high socio-economic moral base, was only used by the big farmers to save their lands from the draconian ceiling laws.

Source: TMH Ramesh Singh