Q. Which among the following are the centers of elementary education in India?
1. Chatuspathis
2. Pathshalas
3. Maktabs
4. Madrasahs
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

[A] 1 and 3 only

[B] 1 and 4 only

[C] 2 and 3 only

[D] 2 and 4 only

Answer: C

The education imparted in 18th-century India was still traditional which could not match with the rapid developments in the West.

· The knowledge was confined to literature, law, religion, philosophy, and logic and excluded the study of physical and natural sciences, technology and geography.

· In fact, due to over-reliance placed on ancient learning, any original thought got discouraged.

· Elementary education among the Hindus and the Muslims was quite widespread. The Hindu and Muslim elementary schools were called pathshalas and maktabs respectively.

· The education was confined to reading, writing, and arithmetic. Children from the lower caste sometimes attended the schools, but female presence was rare.

· Chatuspathis or Tols, as they were called in Bihar and Bengal, were the centres of higher education.

· Some of the famous centres for Sanskrit education were Kasi (Varanasi), Tirhut (Mithila), Nadia and Utkala.

· Madrasahs were the institutions of higher learning for Persian and Arabic, Persian being the court language and learnt by the Muslims as well as the Hindus.

· Azimabad (Patna) was a famous centre for Persian education. People interested in the study of the Quran and Muslim theology had to acquire proficiency in Arabic.

Source: Spectrum’s A Brief History of Modern India