Q. Which among the following weathering process result in the formation of caves?

[A] Hydration

[B] Carbonation

[C] Oxidation

[D] Solution

Answer: B
Notes:

Carbonation is the reaction of carbonate and bicarbonate minerals and is a common process helping in breaking down of feldspars and carbonate minerals.  

  • Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and soil air is absorbed by water, to form carbonic acid that acts as a weak acid.  
  • Calcium carbonates and magnesium carbonates are dissolved in carbonic acid and are removed in solution without leaving any residue resulting in cave formation. 

Source: NCERT – XI Fundamentals of Physical Geography