Q. Which of the following are four pillars of human development?
Choose the correct answer from below given codes:

[A] 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

[B] 2, 3, 4 and 5 only

[C] 1, 3, 4 and 5 only

[D] 1, 2 and 3 only

Answer: B

Explanation: Just as any building is supported by pillars, the idea of human development is supported by the concepts of equity, sustainability, productivity and empowerment.

  • Equity refers to making equal access to opportunities available to everybody. The opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and in the Indian case, caste.
  • Sustainability means continuity in the availability of opportunities. To have sustainable human development, each generation must have the same opportunities.
  • Productivity here means human labour productivity or productivity in terms of human work. Such productivity must be constantly enriched by building capabilities in people.
  • Empowerment means to have the power to make choices. Such power comes from increasing freedom and capability.

Source: NCERT – Fundamental of Human Geography