Q. Which of the following factors are affecting the Indian monsoon?
1. The differential heating of the landmass of Asia and the Indian Ocean.
2. The existence of the Himalayan ranges and the Tibetan Plateau.
3. Changes in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[A] 1 only

[B] 1 and 2 only

[C] 2 and 3 only

[D] 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D
Notes:

The term monsoon has been derived from the Arabic word mausin or from the Malayan word monsin meaning ‘season’.  

Monsoons are seasonal winds (Rhythmic wind movements – Periodic Winds) which reverse their direction with the change of season. 

Factors affecting monsoon in India- 

  • The differential heating of the landmass of Asia and the Indian Ocean. 
  • The existence of the Himalayan ranges and the Tibetan Plateau. 
  • The occurrence of heavy-light snow over the Tibetan Plateau. 
  • The existence and circulation of the upper air jet stream in the troposphere. 
  • Changes in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean have been known to have an inverse relationship with the Indian summer monsoon rainfall. This means if there is a cold phase in the Atlantic, it can bring more rainfall to India and vice versa. 

Source: NCERT – XI India Physical Environment