Q. Which of the following is/are reason/s for Causes of Intellectual Awakening in sixth century, B. C?
1.New State formations
2.Rigidity of the Vedic religion
3.Urbanization and expansion of trade led to formation of new merchant class
Choose the correct answer from below given codes:

[A] 1 only

[B] 1 and 2 only

[C] 2 and 3 only

[D] 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Explanation: Sixth century BCE was a period of intense intellectual ferment. There are several reasons for the emergence of this ferment.

  • State formation and the rigidity of the Vedic religion constrained the liberty of thought and action. A revolt against religious practice of following dogmas found its articulation in heterodox sects.
  • The emergence of territorial identities accelerated the process of socio-political and economic changes. The elite class, disillusioned with the system in place, began to move in protest towards the heterodox religions blossoming in Magadha or middle Ganges plains.
  • As the Vedic religion was not fully organised, its reach did not permeate into the society and hence people did not find it difficult to follow the newly emerging religious sects.
  • With urbanisation and expansion of trade, new classes of merchants and bankers such as sethis sought higher social status appropriate to their economic status.
  • The grievance of Kshatriyas was that they were denied a staged life of ashramas, a privilege permitted only to Brahmins in the Vedic texts.

Source: Tamil Nadu NCERT