Q. Which of the following pair is/are correctly matched?
Term                    Used for
1. Ayas                 Copper and Bronze
2. Nishka              Gold/Silver ornament
3. Takshan            Carpenters
4. Gavishthi           War
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

[A] 1, 2 and 3 only

[B] 2, 3 and 4 only

[C] 1, 3 and 4 only

[D] 1, 2, 3 and 4

Answer: D

Explanation: Pastoralism:

  • Cattle rearing was an important economic activity for the Aryans, although they practiced agriculture. Cattle were considered wealth.
  • The term for war in the Rig Veda was gavishthi which means search for cows (which is the contemporary term (goshti) for factions as well).
  • The donations to the priests were mainly cows and women slaves but not land, which reveals the importance of pastoralism. There was no private property in land.

Craft Production

  • The Rig Veda mentions artisans such as carpenters, chariot-makers, weavers and leather-workers. Copper metallurgy was one of the important developments of this period.
  • The term ayas in the Rig Veda refers to copper and bronze. Karmara, smith, is mentioned in the Rig Veda. Likewise, there are references to siri or yarn, indicating spinning which was done by women and to carpenters, takshan.
  • Weaving of clothes of wool is also referred to and obviously it was necessary in the cold weather. Some of the crafts were fulltime crafts, involving specialists.

Trade, Exchange and Redistribution

  • Trading activities were limited though traders were present during the Early Vedic period. Panis are referred to as traders and they were perhaps caravan traders. The word pan means barter, which was a mode of exchange.
  • Nishka was a gold or silver ornament used in barter. A priest received 100 horses and 100 nishka as fee for sacrifices. The danas and dakshinas offered to people were means of redistributing resources.
  • The dakshina was both a fee for a specific service and also a means of distributing wealth. The distribution of cows helped spread pastoral activities and economic production.

Source: Tamil Nadu Board Class 11