Q. Which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. Himalayan rivers have their origin in the snow-covered areas, hence, are dry in winter season.
2. Rivers of the Peninsular Plateau have reached maturity.
3. Himalayan rivers depict all the three stages of normal cycle of erosion.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[A] 2 only

[B] 1 and 3 only

[C] 2 and 3 only

[D] 1, 2 and 3

Answer: A

The Indian Drainage System can be divided into two broad categories on the basis of origin i.e. Himalayan Rivers and Peninsular Rivers. Himalayan rivers are perennial and come from high altitude with high speed, and have large and deep courses. Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra is the main rivers of the Himalaya Rivers System. Peninsular Rivers are broad, stable and flow through shallow valleys. Narmada, Tapi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery and Mahanadi is the main Peninsular Rivers.

Some of the differences between these two types of rivers are:

While Himalayan Rivers are perennial in nature, peninsular rivers are seasonal in nature and are heavily dependent upon rainfall.

While Himalayan Rivers are young and cause much erosion and have great flow of water, peninsular rivers are mature and create much less erosion and also have weaker flow of water. Himalayan rivers are meandering, whereas peninsular rivers are straight.

Himalayan rivers create Great Plains suitable for agriculture, urbanization, and industrialization. Hence, these are some of the most densely populated areas in the country.

Compared to the peninsular rivers, the Himalayan rivers are much longer and deeper than peninsular rivers.

Source: NCERT