Q. which one of the following best defines the term ‘State’?

[A] A community of persons permanently occupying a definited territory independent of external control and possessing an organized government

[B] a politically organized people of a definite territory and possessing an authority to govern them, maintain law and order, protect their natural rights and safeguard their means of sustenance

[C] A number of persons who have been living in a definite territory for a very long time with their own culture, tradition and government

[D] A society permanently living in a definite territory with a central authority, an executive responsible to the central authority and an independent judiciary

Answer: D
Notes:

Why this question: Important static concept related to polity 

Ans) a 

Exp) Option a is correct. 

State is a community of persons permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, independent of external control, and possessing an organized government  

According to Max Weber, a State is a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory.  

The state possesses a government which has the authority to enforce a system of rules over the people living inside it. That system of rules is commonly composed of a constitution, statutes, regulations, and common law.  

Its mains functions can be maintaining law, order and stability, resolving various kinds of disputes through the legal system, providing common defence, and looking out for the welfare of the population in ways that are beyond the means of the individual, such as implementing public health measures, providing mass education and underwriting expensive medical research. 

Source) https://nios.ac.in/media/documents/srsec317newE/317EL2.pdf  

https://jyotinivas.org/pdf/e_content/sociology/1st%20year%20unit-05%20(on%20state%20).pdf  

Subject) Polity