Q. Who gave the permission to establish a factory at Surat to the Britishers?
Captain Hawkins arrived in the court of Jahangir in April 1609 itself. But the mission to establish a factory at Surat didn’t succeed due to opposition from the Portuguese, and Hawkins left Agra in November 1611.
· In 1611, the English had started trading at Masulipatnam on the south-eastern coast of India and later established a factory there in 1616.
· It was in 1612 that Captain Thomas Best defeated the Portuguese in the sea off Surat; an impressed Jahangir granted permission to the English in early 1613 to establish a factory at Surat under Thomas Aldworth.
· In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe came as an accredited ambassador of James I to the court of Jahangir, staying on their till February 1619.
· Though he was unsuccessful in concluding a commercial treaty with the Mughal emperor, he was able to secure a number of privileges, including permission to set up factories at Agra, Ahmedabad and Broach.
Source: Spectrum’s A Brief History of Modern India.