Q. With reference to Colonial powers in India arrange the following treaties in chronological order:
1. Treaty of Aix-La Chapelle
2. Treaty of peace of Paris
3. Treaty of Ryswick
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[A] 1 2 3

[B] 2 1 3

[C] 3 1 2

[D] 1 3 2

Answer: C

Treaty of Ryswick: In July 1697 the treaty brought to an end the Nine Years War, in which Louis XIV’s France faced a grand coalition of England, the Dutch, and Spain.  

  • Louis agreed to return most of his territorial acquisitions or réunions made since Nijmegen, but retained the important fortress town of Strasbourg.  
  • The Dutch were allowed to garrison barrier fortresses in the Spanish Netherlands. In India Pondicherry was restored to French by Dutch.  
  • The treaty, negotiated with much difficulty, lasted only four years before the War of the Spanish Succession broke out. 

Treaty of Aix-La Chapelle: It was signed between The British and French in 1748 after first Carnatic war.  

  • Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748 was negotiated largely by Britain and France, with the other powers following their lead, ending the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–48).  
  • The treaty was marked by the mutual restitution of conquests, including the fortress of Louisburg on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, to France; Madras in India, to England. 

Treaty of peace of Paris: The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years’ War between Great Britain and France, as well as their respective allies.  

  • In the terms of the treaty, France gave up all its territories in mainland North America, effectively ending any foreign military threat to the British colonies there.  
  • In India Pondicherry, Karaikal and other French possessions were returned to the French on condition that they should not fortify them and it ended the third Carnatic war in 1763. 

Source: Spectrum Modern India.