Q. With reference to recent developments regarding ‘Recombinant Vector Vaccines’, consider the following statements:
1. Genetic engineering is applied in the development of these vaccines.
2. Bacteria and viruses are used as vectors.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[A] 1 only

[B] 2 only

[C] Both 1 and 2

[D] Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: C
Notes:

Why this Question) COVID-19 recombinant vector vaccines in news recently. 

Ans) c 

Exp) Option c is correct.  

Statement 1 is correct. Genetic engineering is applied in the development of Recombinant vector vaccines. Genetic engineering involves techniques to alter the chemistry of genetic material (DNA and RNA), to introduce these into host organisms and thus change the phenotype of the host organism.  The techniques of genetic engineering include creation of recombinant DNA, use of gene cloning and gene transfer.  

Statement 2 is correct. Recombinant vaccines are made of a viral or bacterial vector. They are used as channels for entry into host organisms. 

Knowledge Base:  

Viral vector-based vaccines use the bodys own cells to produce them. They do this by using a modified virus (the vector) to deliver genetic code for antigen, in the case of COVID-19 spike proteins found on the surface of the virus, into human cells. Gene engineering is applied in the development of recombinant vector vaccines. The use of recombinant proteins allows the targeting of immune responses focused against few protective antigens.  

Source:  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3854212/  

https://www.gavi.org/vaccineswork/what-are-viral-vector-based-vaccines-and-how-could-they-be-used-against-covid-19   

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/recombinant-vaccine  

https://ncert.nic.in/ncerts/l/lebo111.pdf 

 Subject) Science