Q. With reference to the alluvium deposits in India, which of the following statements is/are NOT correct?
1. Most of the northern plains are formed by alluvial deposits brought by rivers.
2. The terai belt consists of marshy and swampy conditions.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

[A] 1 only

[B] 2 only

[C] Both 1 and 2

[D] Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: D

The northern plains are formed by the alluvial deposits brought by the rivers – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra.  

  • These plains extend approximately 3,200 km from the east to the west. The average width of these plains varies between 150 – 300 km.  
  • The maximum depth of alluvium deposits varies between 1,000-2,000 m. From the north to the south, these can be divided into three major zones: the Bhabar, the Tarai and the alluvial plains.  
  • The alluvial plains can be further divided into the Khadar and the Bhangar. Bhabar is a narrow belt ranging between 8-10 km parallel to the Shiwalik foothills at the break-up of the slope.  
  • As a result of this, the streams and rivers coming from the mountains deposit heavy materials of rocks and boulders, and at times, disappear in this zone.  
  • South of the Bhabar is the Tarai belt, with an approximate width of 10-20 km where most of the streams and rivers re-emerge without having any properly demarcated channel, thereby, creating marshy and swampy conditions known as the Tarai. 

Source: NCERT XI – India Physical Environment