Q. With reference to the impacts of El Nino, consider the following statements;
1.The phenomena of upwelling, where nutrient-rich waters rise towards the surface, is reduced under El Niño.
2.El Niño causes heavy floods in Australia and create drier conditions in the Southern U.S.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[A] .1 only

[B] .2 only

[C] Both 1 and 2

[D] Neither 1 nor 2

Answer: A
Notes:

Statement 1 is correct: The phenomena of upwelling, where nutrient-rich waters rise towards the surface, is reduced under El Niño. This in turn reduces phytoplankton. Thus, fish that eat phytoplankton are affected, followed by other organisms higher up the food chain.

Statement 2 is incorrect: El Niño also causes dry, warm winters in the Northern U.S. and Canada and increases the risk of flooding in the U.S. gulf coast and south-eastern U.S. It also brings drought to Indonesia and Australia.

Note: La Nina causes heavy floods in Australia, create drier conditions in the Southern U.S. and heavy rainfall in Canada.

Source: Are El Niño-La Niña weather patterns changing?