News:Registrar General of India has released data related to birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate in its Sample Registration System(SRS) bulletin for 2018.The rates are calculated per one thousand of the population.
Birth Rate:It is a crude measure of fertility of a population and a crucial determinant of population growth.
- It has declined from 36.9 in 1971 to 20.0 in 2018.The rural-urban differential has also narrowed.
- However, the birth rate has continued to be higher in rural areas compared to urban areas.
- Bihar (26.2) continues to remain at the top of list in birth rate while Andaman and Nicobar (11.2) is at the bottom.
Death Rate:It is one of the basic components of population change and the data is essential for demographic studies and public health administration
- It has decreased from 14.9 in 1971 to 6.2 in 2018.The decline has been steeper in rural areas.
- Chhattisgarh has the highest death rate at 8 and Delhi has a lowest death rate of 3.3.
Infant mortality rate(IMR):It is the number of deaths of children under one year of age per 1000 live births.
- It has decreased to 32 in 2018 from 50 in the last decade and about one-fourth as compared to 1971 (129).
- Madhya Pradesh has the highest IMR of 48 and Nagaland has the lowest IMR of 4.
- Sample Registration System:It is a demographic survey for providing reliable annual estimates of infant mortality rate, birth rate, death rate and other fertility and mortality indicators at the national and sub-national levels.It was initiated on a pilot basis by the Registrar General of India in a few states in 1964-65, it became fully operational during 1969-70.
- Registrar General of India:It was founded in 1961 under the Ministry of Home Affairs.It conducts and analyses the results of the demographic surveys of India including Census of India and Linguistic Survey of India.