Smart Anti-Airfield Weapon (SAAW)
Why in News?
Defence Research and Development Organisation(DRDO) has conducted a successful trial of the indigenously developed Smart Anti-Airfield Weapon (SAAW) off the Odisha coast from the Hawk-I jet of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited(HAL).
- Smart Anti-Airfield Weapon(SAAW): It is a long-range precision-guided anti-airfield weapon developed by DRDO’s Research Centre Imarat (RCI) Hyderabad.
- The weapon is designed to strike ground targets, especially adversary airfield infrastructure or similar strategically important installations.
- The weapon is capable of engaging ground enemies airfield assets such as radars, bunkers, taxi tracks, and runways up to a range of 100 kilometres.
- RUDRAM: It is India’s first indigenous anti-radiation air-to-surface missile for Indian Air Force(IAF). The missile is integrated on SU-30 Mk1 fighter aircraft.
- Purpose: It is designed to detect, track and neutralise the adversary’s radar, communication assets and other radio frequency sources which are generally part of their air defence systems.
Source: Indian Express
S-400 long-range Air Defence System
Why in News?
Indian military specialists will soon undergo training courses on the S-400 long-range Air Defence System in Russia.
- S-400 Triumf Missile: It is a mobile, surface-to-air missile system(SAM) designed by Russia.
- Supply of S-400 missiles is one of the flagship projects in the Russian-Indian military and military-technical cooperation
- The S-400 is an air defence system. The missile can destroy airborne targets within the range of 250km and also capable of destroying fast moving targets such as fighter aircraft.
- It is capable of firing three types of missiles to create a layered defence.
- The system can engage all types of aerial targets including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles(UAV) and ballistic and cruise missiles within the range of 400km, at an altitude of up to 30km.
- It can track 100 airborne targets and engage six of them simultaneously.
- Concerns for India: India is concerned that the U.S would proceed with Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act(CAATSA) sanctions against India over the S-400 purchase from Russia.
- CAATSA: It is a United States federal law that imposed sanctions on Iran, North Korea, and Russia. It includes sanctions against countries that engage in significant transactions with Russia’s defense and intelligence sectors.
India’s first Indigenously Developed 9mm Machine Pistol
News: Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed the country’s first indigenous machine pistol ASMI.
- ASMI: It is a 9mm Machine Pistol jointly developed by DRDO and the Indian Army. The weapon is aptly named “Asmi” meaning Pride, Self-Respect and Hard Work.
- Range: The machine pistol can fire at a range of 100 metres and is in the class of the Uzi series guns of Israel.
- Design: The machine sports an upper receiver made from aircraft-grade Aluminum and lower receiver from carbon fiber. The 3D Printing process has been used in designing and prototyping various parts including trigger components made by metal 3D printing.
- Applications: The weapon has huge potential in the Armed forces as a personal weapon for heavy weapon detachments, commanders, tank and aircraft crews, drivers/dispatch riders, radio/radar operators, counter insurgency and counter-terrorism operations among others.
- Significance: The pistol will pave way for self-reliance and it is expected to be inducted by the Services and Paramilitary Forces (PMFs).
Cabinet approves procurement of 83 Light Combat Aircrafts (LCA) ‘Tejas’
News: Cabinet has approved procurement of 73 LCA Tejas Mk-1A fighter aircraft and 10 LCA Tejas Mk-1 Trainer aircraft.
- LCA Tejas: It is a single-engine, fourth-generation, multirole light fighter aircraft designed by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA). Tejas was developed in collaboration with Hindustan Aeronautics Limited(HAL) for the Indian Air Force(IAF) and Indian Navy.
- LCA Tejas Mk 1A is an advanced version of LCA Mk1. It is a supersonic fighter at all altitudes for air combat which can carry a payload of 3,500 kg and it is best suited for offensive air support.
- Key Features: This Mk 1A is equipped with critical operational capabilities of Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) Radar, Beyond Visual Range (BVR) Missile, Electronic Warfare (EW) Suite and Air to Air Refueling(AAR).
- Significance: It is the first “Buy (Indian-Indigenously Designed, Developed and Manufactured)” category procurement of combat aircrafts with an indigenous content of 50% which will progressively reach 60% by the end of the programme.
IIT Hyderabad sets up ‘TiHAN-IIT’ testbed for autonomous navigation systems
News: Union Minister of Education has virtually laid the foundation stone of ‘TiHAN-IIT Hyderabad.
- TiHAN: It is India’s first Technology Innovation Hub for Autonomous Navigation Systems and Data Acquisition Systems setup by IIT Hyderabad.
- Focus: The hub focuses on addressing various challenges hindering the real-time adoption of unmanned autonomous vehicles for both terrestrial and aerial applications.
- Funded by: It was sanctioned and funded by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) under the National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS).
- Sectors: The hub’s focus sectors include Intelligent, Autonomous Transportation and Systems, Agriculture, Surveillance, and Environmental & Infrastructure Monitoring.
- Who can use it? The hub will be available for use by industries, R&D labs, academia conducting research and development in the broad areas of autonomous navigation.
- Cyber Physical Systems(CPS): It is a new class of engineered systems that integrate computation and physical processes in a dynamic environment. It encompasses technology areas of Cybernetics, Mechatronics, Design and Embedded systems, Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data, Artificial Intelligence (AI) among others.
- National Mission on Interdisciplinary Cyber-Physical Systems (NM-ICPS): It was launched in 2018 by the Department of Science & Technology for a period of five years.
- Aim: To create a seamless ecosystem for CPS by coordinating and integrating nationwide efforts encompassing knowledge generation, human resource development, research, technology, innovation and commercialization.
- Key Objectives of the Mission: The mission implementation would develop and bring:
- Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) and associated technologies within reach in the country,
- adoption of CPS technologies to address India specific National / Regional issues,
- produce Next Generation skilled manpower in CPS,
- catalyze Translational Research,
- accelerate entrepreneurship and start-up ecosystem development in CPS,
- give impetus to advanced research in CPS, Technology development and higher education in Science, Technology and Engineering disciplines, and
- place India at par with other advanced countries and derive several direct and indirect benefits.
- Features of the mission:
- The mission aims at establishment of 15 numbers of Technology Innovation Hubs(TIH), six numbers of Application Innovation Hubs(AIH) and four numbers of Technology Translation Research Parks(TTRP).
- These Hubs & TTRPs will connect to Academics, Industry, Central Ministries and State Government in developing solutions at reputed academic, R&D and other organizations across the country in a hub and spoke model.
Maiden Flight Trial of Sahayak-NG, Air Droppable Container
News: Defence Research and Development Organisation(DRDO) along with Indian Navy has conducted the successful maiden test trial of ‘SAHAYAK-NG’.
- Sahayak-NG: It is India’s first indigenously designed and developed Air Dropped Container from IL 38SD aircraft (Indian Navy) off the coast of Goa.
- Developed by: It has been developed by two DRDO laboratories i.e. NSTL, Visakhapatnam and ADRDE, Agra along with industry partner M/s Avantel for GPS integration.
- Key Features:
- The container can enhance Indian Navy’s operational logistics capabilities and provide critical engineering stores to ships which are deployed more than 2000 km from the coast.
- It also reduces the requirement of ships to come close to the coast to collect spares and stores.
- The GPS aided container also has the capability to carry a payload that weighs up to 50 kg and can be dropped from heavy aircraft.
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Cabinet gives approval for Akash missile export
Source: The Hindu
News: The Union Cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister has approved the export of the Akash Missile system. It also approved the high-level committee formed to expedite clearance of such exports.
- Akash Missile: It is an indigenously developed short range Surface-to-air missile with multi-target engagement capability.
- Developed by: The missile has been developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
- The Missile has been inducted and is operational with the Indian Air Force(IAF) as well as the Indian Army(IA).
- Key Features:
- The missile has a strike range of 25 km.It can reach an altitude of 18 km and can be fired from both tracked and wheeled platforms.
- It has a large operational envelope from a low altitude of 30 metres to a maximum of up to 20 km.
- The system can simultaneously engage multiple targets in Group Mode or Autonomous Mode.
- It has built-in Electronic Counter-CounterMeasures(ECCM) features.The entire weapon system has been configured on mobile platforms.
- In August 2020, the Defence Ministry has issued a draft ‘Defence Production & Export Promotion Policy (DPEPP) 2020’ for public feedback with the aim to achieve a manufacturing turnover of $25 bn or ₹1,75,000 crore, including exports of $5 bn in aerospace and defence goods and services by 2025.
India successfully conducts tests of Medium Range Surface to Air Missile (MRSAM)
Source: The Indian Express
News: India has successfully conducted the first launch of the Army version of the Medium Range Surface to Air Missile(MRSAM).An unmanned air vehicle(UAV), ‘Banshee’, was first flown into the air which was hit by the MRSAM.
- MRSAM: It is an Air and Missile Defence system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) in collaboration with the Israel Aerospace Industry(IAI).
- Purpose: It has been developed to neutralise airborne threats like jets, missiles and rockets, including projectiles launched simultaneously.
- Key Features:
- The Missile consists of a command and control post, multi-function radar and mobile launcher system.
- It has a strike range of nearly 100 km, weighs around 2.7 tonne and can carry a payload of 60 kg.
- The missile has a speed of Mach 2 and possesses high degrees of maneuverability at the target interception range.
Super Hornet fighter jets being tested for Navy use
Source : The Hindu
News: Boeing has announced the successful demonstration of the compatibility of its F/A-18 Super Hornet fighter jets with the Indian Navy’s aircraft carriers as part of its pitch for the Navy’s fighter procurement.
- Super Hornet Fighter Jet: It is the world’s most lethal, advanced, combat-proven, multi-role frontline fighter-jet.
- Developed by: The jet has been developed by US Aerospace Company, Boeing.
- Key Features
- Multi-role Superiority: Capable of tactical strikes, air reconnaissance, air defense, and maritime roles.
- Cutting-edge Technologies: Enhanced computing and data link, advanced cockpit system, signature improvements
- Lifecycle Affordability: Lowest cost per flight hour among all U.S. tactical fighters in production.
India looks at integrating more countries into coastal radar network
Source: The Hindu
News: India is in talks with Maldives, Myanmar and Bangladesh to set up coastal radar stations as part of efforts to further expand the coastal radar chain network meant to enable real-time monitoring of the high seas for threats.
- Countries already integrated in the Coastal Radar Network: Mauritius, Seychelles and Sri Lanka have been integrated into the country’s coastal radar chain network.
- Information Management and Analysis Centre(IMAC): It was established in 2014 and is the nodal centre for maritime security information collation and dissemination.
- Location: Gurgaon, Haryana
- Operated by: It is jointly operated by the Navy and Coast Guard.
- White Shipping agreements: It refers to exchange of relevant advance information on the identity and movement of commercial non-military merchant vessels.
- Indian Navy has been authorised to conclude white shipping agreements with 36 countries and three multilateral constructs. So far agreements have been concluded with 22 countries and one multilateral construct.
- Information Fusion Centre – Indian Ocean region(IFC-IOR): It was set up in 2018 within the premises of the IMAC to coordinate with regional countries on maritime safety and security and act as a regional repository of maritime data.
Defence Minister hands over DRDO systems to Armed Forces Chiefs
News: Defence Minister has handed over three indigenously developed Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) systems to Army, Navy and Air Force.
What are the three indigenously developed systems?
- Indian Maritime Situational Awareness System (IMSAS): It is a state-of-the-art and high performance intelligent software system that provides Global Maritime Situational Picture, marine planning tools and analytical capabilities to Indian Navy.
- Developed by: Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics (CAIR), Bengaluru and Indian Navy has jointly conceptualised and developed the product and Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Bengaluru has implemented it.
- Astra is the indigenously developed Beyond Visual Range Air-to-Air Missile (BVRAAM).
- The BVRAAM technology enables fighter-pilots to shoot precisely at the enemy targets which are beyond their visual range.
- The missile has been developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
- The missile has a range of over 70 km.It can fly towards the target at a speed of over 5,555 km per hour.
- The missile has a 15-kilogramme high-explosive pre-fragmented warhead and the missile is also capable of engaging targets of different ranges and altitudes.
- Further,Astra missile also has some highly advanced features like Electronic Counter-Countermeasures or ECCM.This feature enables Astra missile to overcome defensive measures put forth for the target by the enemy.
- The ASTRA Mk-I Weapon System integrated with SU-30 Mk-I aircraft is being inducted into the Indian Air Force (IAF).
- Border Surveillance System(BOSS): It is an all-weather electronic surveillance system successfully designed and developed by Instruments Research and Development Establishment (IRDE), Dehradun.
- Purpose: The system has been deployed at Ladakh border area for day and night surveillance and facilitates monitoring and surveillance by automatically detecting the intrusions in harsh high-altitude sub-zero temperature areas with remote operation capability.
What is CAATSA? Why U.S. imposes CAATSA sanctions on Turkey?
Source: Click here
News: The United States(US) has imposed Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) sanctions on Turkey for its purchase of Russia’s S-400 missile defence system.
What is Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA)?
CAATSA is a US federal law enacted in 2017 that imposed sanctions on Iran, North Korea and Russia.
- Purpose: The CAATSA Act empowers the US President to impose sanctions against countries that engage in a significant transaction with Russian defence and intelligence sectors.
What type of sanctions will be imposed under CAATSA?
a) Prohibition on loans to the sanctioned country.
b) prohibition of Export-Import bank assistance for exports to sanctioned persons
c) prohibition on procurement by the United States Government to procure goods or services from the sanctioned person among others.
- Implications for India: India could also face similar US sanctions for purchasing high-value military defense items, in particular the S-400 Triumf missile defense system from Russia under the act.
What is S-400 Triumf Missile?
It is a mobile, modern long range surface-to-air missile system(MRL SAM) designed by Russia.
It is considered to be most advanced system than the Terminal High Altitude Area Defence system (THAAD) developed by the United States
The system can engage all types of aerial targets including aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles(UAV) and ballistic and cruise missiles within the range of 400km, at an altitude of up to 30 km. It can track 100 airborne targets and engage six of them simultaneously.
GRSE-built stealth frigate ‘INS Himgiri’ launched
Source: Click here
News: INS Himgiri, the first of the three Project 17A ships was launched by the Indian Navy.
- INS Himgiri: It is an indigenous stealth frigate being built by the Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers Limited(GRSE), Kolkata under Project 17A for the Navy.
- Project 17A or Nilgiri-class frigate: It is a follow-on of the Project 17 Shivalik-class frigate for the Indian Navy.A total of seven ships are being built, four at Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited(MDL) and three ships at GRSE.
- Significance: P17A ships are the first gas turbine propulsion and largest combat platforms ever built at GRSE.
- Project 17A ships are sourcing 80% of the material/ equipment required for the project from indigenous vendors and with employment generation for over 2000 Indian firms and MSMEs within the country.
Upgraded Akash missile successfully test-fired
Source: Click Here
News: Indian Air Force has successfully test-fired the Akash Missiles at Suryalanka test firing range in Andhra Pradesh.
- Akash Missile: It is a medium-range mobile surface-to-air missile defense system developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and manufactured by Bharat Dynamics Limited(BDL).
- Used by: It is an indigenously made missile inducted into the Indian Army and Air Force.
- Range: The missile has the capability to engage aerial threats upto the maximum range of 25 km and up to an altitude of 18 km operating at a speed range of 1.8 to 2.5 Mach.