[Summary] Chapter 2 – Freedom | Political Theory – Class 11 – NCERT

Chapter 2 :  Freedom

  1. Freedom is said to exist when external constraints on the individual are absent……
  2. absence of constraints is only one dimension of freedom, there are many other dimension also
  3. to be free means to reduce or minimise social constraints that limit our ability to make choices freely
  4. Freedom is also about expanding the ability of people to freely express themselves and develop their potential.
  5. A free society, which enables all its members to develop their potential with the minimum of social constraints.
  6. No individual living in society can hope to enjoy total absence of any kind of constraints or restrictions
  7. Freedom also has a positive dimension.
  8. To be free a society must widen the area in which individuals will be able to charter their own destiny and be what they wish to be.
  9. Freedom, allows the full development of the individual’s creativity, sensibilities and capabilities
  10. A free society is one that enables one to pursue one’s interests with a minimum of constraints.
  11. Freedom is considered valuable because it allows us to make choices and to exercise our judgement.
  12. It permits the exercise of the individual’s powers of reason and judgement.
  13. Restrictions on the freedom of individuals may come from domination and external controls.
  14. Such restrictions may be imposed by force or they may be imposed by a government through laws
  15. Democratic government is considered to be an important means of protecting the freedom of people.
  16. Constraints on freedom can also result from social inequality (e.g.-caste system), or which result from extreme economic inequality in a society
  17. We cannot live in a world where there are no constraints.
  18. We need some constraints or else society would descend into chaos.
  19. Ideally, in a free society we should be able to hold our views, develop our own rules of living, and pursue our choices
  20. Under some circumstances we need some legal and political restraints to ensure that differences may be discussed and debated
  21. However, as freedom is at the core of human society, is so crucial for a dignified human life, it should only be constrained in special circumstances.
  22. Constraining actions by the force of law should only happen when the other regarding actions cause serious harm to definite individuals.
  23. Hate campaigns causes serious harm to the freedom of others and actions that cause ‘serious harm’ are actions on which constraints can be imposed.
  24. As per the constitution, the restrictions may be there but they must be reasonable, i.e., capable of being defended by reason, not excessive, not out of proportion to the action being restricted
  25. The individual to develop his or her capability must get the benefit of enabling positive conditions in material, political and social domains
  26. they must have adequate material resources to pursue their wants and needs.
  27. They must also have the opportunity to participate in the decision making process so that the laws made reflect their choices
  28. Positive liberty recognises that one can be free only in society (not outside it) and hence tries to make that society such that it enables the development of the individual
  29. Freedom of expression is a fundamental value
  30. Constraints of different kind exist and we are subject to them in different situations.
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