Chapter 9: Peace
1. Like ‘democracy’, ‘justice’, and ‘human rights’, ‘peace’ has also become indispensible.
2. Peace is often defined as the absence of war. The definition is simple but misleading.
3. This is because every war leads to absence of peace, every absence of peace need not take the form of war.
4. Peace may be defined as absence of violent conflict of all kinds including war, riot, massacre, assassination, or simply physical attack.
5. Peace occupies a central place in the original teachings of almost all religions.
6. The modern era too has witnessed ardent advocates of peace, both in the spiritual and secular domains.
7. Humanity has learnt to value peace after paying a huge price for its absence.
8. A just and lasting peace can be attained only by articulating and removing the latent grievances and causes of conflict through a process of dialogue
Forms of Structural Violence
9. The traditional caste system treated certain groups of people as asprishya or untouchable.
10. Article 17 of Indian Constitution bans the practice of untouchability.
11. Patriarchy entails a form of social organisation that results in the systematic subordination of, and discrimination against, women
12. selective abortion of female foetuses, denial of adequate nourishment and education to the girl-child, childmarriage, wife battering, dowry-related crimes, sexual harassment at the workplace, rape, and honour killing, etc
13. Racism and communalism involve the stigmatisation and oppression of an entire racial group or community.
|MAHATMA GANDHI ON NON-VIOLENCE|
· For Gandhi , non-violence meant not just refraining from causing physical harm, mental harm or loss of livelihood. It also meant giving up even the thought of harming someone.
· For him ‘causing’ did not mean doing the harm oneself.
· For Gandhi, “I would be guilty of violence, if I helped someone in harming someone else or if I benefited from a harmful act.”
· For him non-violence meant a positive and active pursuit of well-being and goodness.
· Nonviolence is an extremely active force that has no room for cowardice or weakness.
14. The pursuit of peace requires that we see ourselves as part of the larger humanity
15. Pacifism preaches opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes.
16. UN Economic and Social Council promotes inter-state cooperation in several spheres.