Surface water includes river, lake and pond water but here only river water pollution is discussed as lake water pollution is discussed separately.
Major River Water Pollutants:
- Sewage Wastes
- Infectious agents include germs and viruses which causes several types of diseases like typhoid, dysentery, cholera, etc.
- Plants nutrients and dissolved substances e.g. chemical fertilizers, detergents, etc.
- Particulate Matter e.g. soil and mineral particles
- Radioactive Substances released from nuclear reactors
- Mineral and Chemical Substances coming from industries and mining operations
- Thermal e.g. hot water released by power plants, nuclear reactors, industries, etc.
- Organic chemical exotics such as synthetic materials like pesticides, insecticides, etc.
Sources of River Pollution
|Point Pollution: The main sources of point pollution of river waters are industrial and urban centers.
Plastic bags are not biodegradable, clog waterways, spoil the landscape; break down into ever smaller particles that continue to pollute the soil and water.
|Non-Point Pollution: discharge of pollutants from diffuse sources or from a larger area such as runoff from agricultural fields (agricultural runoff), grazing lands, construction sites, abandoned mines and pits, roads and streets.
Examples of River Water Pollution in India
- Case studies
|Case Study: Ulsoor Lake Pollution||Polluted by a vast floating layer of non-recycled debris comprising plastic bags and water bottles and even sacks. It witnesses frequent foaming on the surface.|
|Lake Water Pollution- Causes behind it
|The causes of lake water pollution are similar to the river water pollution. However, the consequences in the lake water pollution is more severe as the water is stagnant unlike river water.
|Case Study: Bellandur Lake Pollution in Bengaluru||
|Measures Needed for urgent restoration and remedial actions for Lake Pollution in the form of:||