1. Critically examine the provisions of the National IPR Policy. Mention some benefits of this policy.
- In the introduction write about the national IPR policy and why was it framed. Points in this regard are :-
- Lays the future roadmap of intellectual property rights in India
- Provides synergies amongst IP,agencies etc.
- Reiterates India’s commitment to the Doha Development Agenda.
- creation of an innovation-conducive environment.
- In the body start writing the provisions of the policy in detail like
- Creating public awareness about IPR’s
- Generation of IPR’s
- Sets a legal framework that will encourage the IPR regime
- Reduce the time taken by the government to approve a trademark
- Realises IPR’s as a marketable financial asset
- Plan will be reviewed every five years
- Making the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) the nodal agency for all IPR issues
- Promote research and development
- Commercialization of IPRs
- Combating IPR infringements
- Implementation,Monitoring and review mechanism
- Then try to write the benefits of this policy as following:-
- Likely bring India’s IP regime in line with global standards
- Help improve its ranking in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business index.
- Identifies IP as a strategic tool for furthering India’s economic goals.
- Cut the time taken on clearing the backlog of intellectual property rights (IPR)
- Focuses on enhancing access to multiple fields.
- Shall weave in the strengths of multiple organisations
- Lots of steps for Start-Ups had been recommended in the policy
- Concerns with the policy need to be listed as well :-
- Mention of Doha Declaration and flexibility would mean there would be attempts to find loopholes in TRIPS in order to favour pharmaceutical companies.
- Silence on the issue of traditional knowledge
- No evidence to show that the modern utility model and trade secret laws are useful
- Failed to address the question of whether a strong IP in itself was sufficient enough to attract foreign direct investment.
- Lacks specifics
- Doubts about its applicability to informal sector in rural areas.
- Then try to write some suggestions on how to improve this policy like much more awareness about the creation, protection and enforcement of IPRs would go a long way .
2. Discuss briefly the location and significance of Mangroves in India.
- Write in the introduction about what are mangroves and add some facts if possible.
- You can roughly draw a map showing important mangroves in India as well.
- Mention the locations of mangroves in India .Try to atleast mention the most important ones like
- Sunderbans in West Bengal
- Bhitarkanika in Odisha
- Pichavaram in Tamilnadu
- Godavari Krishna mangroves
- Bartang island mangroves in Andaman and nicobar etc .
- Try to elaborate the significance in multiple dimensions i.e, Socio culturally ,economic, environmental etc.
- Socio culturally they are worshipped by the inhabitants .
- It has wide range of ecosystem goods and services
- Recreation and tourism
- Support system to coastal inhabitants
- Renewable resource
- Nature’s shield against cyclones
- Stabilizes the coastline
- Prevents soil erosion
- Recycles nutrients
- breeding grounds
- Shelter to a large number of endangered species
- In the conclusion add how government initiatives like mangroves for the future need to be made effective ,any other measures needed to ensure protection of mangroves.
3. Discuss the consequences of Climate Change on agriculture and food security.
- In the Introduction try to show how climate change is bringing in extreme weather tendencies which affect the world especially India when it is still largely dependant on agriculture.
- In the body try to elaborate consequences on agriculture and food security from multiple dimensions like
- Magnitude of the impact like it’s impact on crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture.
- How it affects trade and income.
- Affects food production.
- Impact on water availability
- Impact on groundwater resources
- Reduce improvements in food security and nutrition.
- Impact on livelihood of people depend on agriculture.
- How it impacts the cropping season.
- Leads to erratic monsoon and its impact .
- You need not focus on only negative consequences there are some benefits to some crops in Indian agriculture as well due to climate change like
- There might be some improvement in yields of chickpeas, rabi maize, sorghum and millets and coconut on the west coast
- Less loss in potatoes, mustard and vegetables in north-western India due to reduced frost damage.
- Then in the end while concluding the answer try to elaborate on the suggestions like
- Increase in public investment
- Better management of water resources
- Irrigation infrastructure needs to be upgraded
- Effective public distribution systems etc.