UPSC IAS Prelims 2022 Material | Modern History Events in News – Part 2

Dear Friends,

This post is a part of our current affairs series for the UPSC IAS Prelims 2022. In this post, we have covered all the Modern History Events in News. This post covers the current affairs of September, October 2021,  and April 2022 months.

Modern History Events in News

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Azad Hind Government


​​Press Information Bureau (PIB) Bhubaneswar in association with the Language, Literature and Culture Department, Government of Odisha organised a joint press conference at Netaji Birth Place Museum on the anniversary of the formation of Netaji’s Azad Hind Government


Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose arrived in Singapore on July 4, 1943. At that time, the Indian Independence Movement had already been launched in East Asia by the late Rash Behari Bose, a veteran nationalist exiled in Japan.

The old leader handed over charge to the new arrival, Subhas Chandra Bose, who was acclaimed as ‘Netaji’. Netaji then took charge of the Indian National Army.

Formation of Azad Hind Government

On October 21, 1943. Bose announced the formation of the Provisional Government of Free India (PGFI) also known as Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind, or in short, Azad Hind Government, an Indian government-in-exile.

The Azad Hind Government started functioning from Singapore, with 11 ministers and eight representatives from the INA.

The Azad Hind Government had ​​its own currency, court and civil code.

The provisional government was also formed in the Japanese-occupied Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The islands were reoccupied by the British in 1945.

The provisional capital of the Azad Hind Government was Port Blair, while its capital-in-exile was Rangoon and Singapore.

Ministers in Azad Hind Government

The Provisional Government of Free India consisted of a Cabinet headed by Subhas Chandra Bose as the Head of the State, The Prime Minister and the Minister for War and Foreign Affairs.

Captain Doctor Lakshmi Sahgal was the Minister in Charge of the Women’s Organization.

S A Ayer headed the publicity and propaganda wing.

Rash Behari Bose was designated as the supreme advisor.

Recognition of Azad Hind Government

The Azad Hind Government was recognised by nine Axis-aligned countries: Japan, Germany, Italy, Croatia, Burma, Thailand, Philippines, Manchukuo (Manchuria), and the Republic of China (Wang Jingwei regime).

Fall of Azad Hind Government

Bose’s death was seen as the end of the Azad Hind government. The Second World War, also, ended in 1945 with the defeat of the Axis powers.

Battle of Saragarhi


September 12 marks the 124th anniversary of the Battle of Saragarhi that has inspired a host of armies, books and films, both at home and abroad.

About Battle of Saragarhi

The Battle of Saragarhi is considered as one of the finest last stands in the military history of the world.

The battle happened in 1897 between the British Indian contingent comprising 21 Sikh soldiers of the 36th Sikhs (now known as Indian Army’s 4th Battalion) who were stationed at Saragarhi and 10,000 to 12,000 Afghans Tribesmen.

Importance of Saragarhi

Saragarhi was the communication tower between Fort Lockhart and Fort Gulistan. The two forts were in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), now in Pakistan. The forts were built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh but renamed by the British.

Saragarhi helped to link up the two important forts which housed a large number of British troops in the NWFP.

Reason for celebrating the achievement of Battle of Saragarhi

Though heavily outnumbered, the 21 Sikh soldiers led by Havildar Ishar Singh managed to hold the Saragarhi tower for seven hours till their last breath, killing 200 tribals and injuring 600.

This bought time for the two other forts to be reinforced and were able to defend themselves upon coming under attack.


Battle of Saragarhi is the only instance in the history of warfare where 21 soldiers were posthumously awarded with Indian Order Merit, the highest award given to Indian soldiers at the time (equivalent to today’s Param Vir Chakra).

Anglo Manipur War


The Government of India has renamed Mount Harriet of Andaman and Nicobar (A&N) Islands to Mount Manipur.

Reason to rename Mount Harriet named as Mount Manipur
Source: Research Gate

Mount Harriet is the third-highest island peak in the A&N Islands. It is the place where Manipur’s Maharaja Kulchandra Singh and 22 other freedom fighters were imprisoned during the Anglo-Manipuri war(1891).

Hence, Mount Harriet has been renamed as Mount Manipur to pay tribute to those freedom fighters of Manipur.

About Anglo Manipur War

The Anglo-Manipur War was an armed conflict between the British Empire and the Kingdom of Manipur. The war lasted between 31 March and 27 April 1891, ending in a British victory.

Reason for the Anglo Manipur War

In 1886, Surchandra inherited the throne from his father Chandrakirti Singh. During this time, the kingdom of Manipur was not under British rule but had links with the crown through different treaties.

However, Surchandra’s ascension to the throne was controversial and his younger brothers – Kulachadra, Tikendrajit – revolted against him.

The 1890 coup by the rebel faction removed Surchandra, and proclaimed Kulachandra, the next oldest brother, the king. Surchandra fled to Calcutta seeking British help to reinstate him.

After this, the British dispatched James Quinton, the Chief Commissioner of Assam, with an army to Manipur. His mission was to recognise Kulachandra as the king under the condition that they are allowed to arrest the coup leader Crown Prince Tikendrajit and deport him from Manipur.

This aggressive imposition of British law in a sovereign state was rejected by the king, precipitating the Anglo-Manipuri War of 1891.

About the course of the war

In the first phase of the war, the British surrendered and their officers – including Quinton – were executed in public.

In the second phase, the British attacked Manipur from three sides and finally captured the Kangla Fort in Imphal. Prince Tikendrajit and four others were hanged by the British, while Kulachandra, along with 22 others, was deported to the Andaman Islands.

Significance of the Anglo Manipur War

In India, this war was viewed as being part of the general uprising against British rule in the country, soon after the Revolt of 1857.

Moreover, this war also led to Manipur officially becoming a princely state under the indirect rule of the British crown.


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