1. Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each : 4×15=60
(a) How does Aristotle’s notion of causation differ from the modern notion of causation ?
(b) Dose Hume deny the possibility of knowledge ? Discuss.
(c) Why does Kant say that existence is not a predicate ?
(d) Are tautologies meaniongless according to Writtgenstein ?
2. Answer the follwoing in about 200 words each: 3×20=60
(a) What does Moore want to establish when he asserts that propositions like ‘the earth exists’ or ‘we have consciousness’ are truisms ? Discuss.
(b) Why does Spinoza think that That God alone is absolutely real ? Explain
(c) Are necessary propositions linguistic by nature ? Discuss in the light of logical positivism.
3. Answer the following in about 300 words each : 2×30=60
(a) What metaphysical implications can be derived from Berkeley’s statement ‘esse est. percipi’?
(b) What is the basic difference between Leibniz and Kant on the concepts of space and time ?
4. Answer the follwoing in about 300 words each : 2×30=60
(a) How is the empirical ego in Sartre and Heidegger different from the transcendental ego in Husserl ?
(b) Is Strawson’s concept of a person a refutation of Hume’s concept of Self ? Discuss.
5. Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each: 4×15=60
(a) Does the effect pre-exist in the cause ? Discuss.
(b) How is Ramanuja’s concept of dharma-bhutajnana different from Sankara’s concept of Svarupajnana ? Explain.
(c) Is Sankara’s concept of adhyasa logical or psychological ? Discuss.
(d) How are evolution and involution related in Sri Aurobindo’s philosophy ?
6. Answer the follwoing in about 200 words each: 3×20=60
(a) ” Just as the skepticism of Mume helped Kant to come out of his dogmatic slumber, so also the Carvaka philosphy saved Indian philosophy from dogmatism”. Discuss.
(b) Can qualities exist without substance ? Substantiate your view in the light of Nyaya- Buddhism controversy.
(c) How does the Buddhist accept the possibility of rebirth in the absence of an eternal soul ? Discuss.
7. Answer the follwoing in about 300 words each : 2×30=60
(a) Bring out the metaphysical implications of the second noble truth of Buddhism.
(b) Is Syadvada a self-contradictory doctrine ? Discuss.
8. Answer the follwoing in about 300 worsd each: 2×30=60
(a) ” Both Sankara and Ramanuja are right in their affirmations but wrong in their denials”. Critically evaluate.
(b) Explain the reasons for introducing the notion of extraordinary perception in Nyaya epistemology.