UPSC Main Philosophy Paper I- 2013

Section A

Q1. Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each:  10×5=50 
(a) Explain and evaluate Strawson’s arguments for his conception of the nature of a person. 10     
(b) Explain Wittgenstein’s arguments against the possibility of private language. 10     
(c) Distinguish necessary from empirical propositions. How is a necessary proposition justified?’Explain. 10    .’      
(d) Discuss how by refuting the different concepts of substances Aristotle establishes his own theory of substance. 10     
(e) What is an antinomy? Describe the major antinomies discussed by Kant. 10     

Q2. Write answers to the following in about 200 words each: 12.5×4 =50 
(a) Explain Plato’s ontological theory of Forms. Is ‘knowledge’ one of the Forms?      Give reasons. 12.5    
(b) State Kant’s view of causality. How far is Kant able to answer Hume’s objection that causal relation lacks logical necessity? 12.5    
(c)  Distinguish between atomic and general propositions. Show how they are justified true. 12.5
(d)  Write a short critical essay on Spinoza’s conception of freedom of the individual. 12.5
     
Q 3.  Write answers to the following in about 200 words each:  12.5×4=50 
(a) Explain Descartes’ method of doubt. Can this method be used to justify his belief in the existence of God? Argue your case. 12.5
(b) Comment: ‘Movement is contradiction itself.’ Examine, in this context, Hegel’s dialectical method. 12.5    
(c) Examine John Locke’s theory of substance. 12.5
(d) Examine Sartre’s distinction between Being-for-itself and Being-in-itself. 12.5

Q 4. Write answers to the following in about 200 words each:12.5×4=50
(a) Comment: ‘Moore’s defence of common sense essentially is defence of ordinary language. 12.5
(b) Analyse Kierkegaard’s concept of choice. Can there be, in his view, correct or incorrect choice? Discuss. 12.5                                                      
(c) Give a critical account of Leibnitz’s’ principle of the identity of indiscernibles. 12.5  
(d) Give a critical account of Hume’s theory of the Self. 12.5

                                        Section B

Q 5 Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each: 10×5=50 
(a) Analyse the relation between the theory of saptabhanginaya and anekantavada. 10
(b) Explain the Buddhists’ position of ‘Impermanence’ and show how the idea of Impermanence  leads to the theory of momentariness of reality. 10
(c) How is the pramanya (validity/truth) of a statement determined? Examine, in this context, the theory of paratah-pramanyavada. 10 
(d) Explain the possibility of jivanmukti. Critically compare it with the Yoga account of kaivalya. 10
(e) Explain Sri Aurobindo’s conception of cosmic salvation through spiritual evolution of the individual. 10

Q 6  Write answers to the following in about 200 words each: 12.5×4=50
(a) Describe the five types of differences (panchavidhabheda). Bring out their philosophical significance for Madhva’s theory.  12.5
(b) What is samavaya ? What are the grounds for accepting samavaya as a distinct padartha ? Discuss. 12.5
(c) Evaluate the relation, if any, between purusa and prakrti.  12.5
(d) How can lsvara (God) be distinguished from Brahman (Absolute)? 
   Which of the two concepts are philosophically better? 12.5    

Q 7.  Write answers to the following in about 200 words each: 12.5×4=50
(a) Analyse the Nyaya concept of vyapti and examine its relation to tarka. 12.5
(b) Evaluate Prabhakara Mimamsaka’s arguments for accepting sruti as pramana. 12.5
(c) Examine, the Nyaya-Vaisesika arguments for the existence of jivatma (soul) .12.5
(d) Distinguish between Svarupa laksana and Tatastha laksana of Brahman after Sankara. 12.5    

Q 8.
  Write answers to the following in about 200 words each: : 12.5×4=50
(a) Comment : ‘Accepting sunyavada makes one indifferent to the pursuit of dharma. Examine, in this context, Nagarjuna’s arguments for sunyavada. 12.5
(b) ‘Not karma, but knowledge alone leads to moksa.’ (Samkara). Do you agree? Justify your answer. 12.5
(c) Evaluate Ramanuja’s critique of Samkara’s theory of maya. 12.5
(d) Give a critical account of the concept of cittavrtti in Yoga philosophy. 12.5

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