UPSC Main Philosophy Paper I- 2014

Q1. Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each: 10×5=50

(a) How are the synthetic a priori judgements justifiable according to Kant? Explain. 10

(b) Bring out the significance of ‘language games’ in Wittgenstein’s use theory of meaning. 10

(c) Explain the significance of ‘bracketing’ in Husserl phenomenology. 10

(d) Does Leibniz’s theory of pre-established harmony necessarily lead to determinism? Discuss.  10

(e) How far are Quine’s arguments in “Two Dogmas of Empiricism” justified? Discuss. 10

Q2. (a) Distinguish between knowledge and belief according to Plato. How is it based on his metaphysics? Explain. 20

(b) Explain the doctrine of Cartesian dualism and examine critically arguments in favour of it. 15

(c) Evaluate critically Hume’s criticism of theory of causation. 15

Q3. (a) Are empirical statements conclusively verifiable? Discuss the limitations of ‘verification theory of meaning’. 20

(b) Why does Wittgenstein disagree with Bertrand Russell’s interpretation of atomism in the philosophy of Tractatus? Discuss. 15

(c) Are G.E. Moore’s arguments in defence of common sense satisfactory? Give reasons. 15

Q4. (a) Explain Kierkegaard’s concept of choice. How does the concept of choice in metaethics differ from normative ethics? Explain. 20

(b) State and evaluate Heidegger’s claim that temporality is the horizon against which the being of any entity is understood.15

(c) Explain the significance of Aristotle’s doctrine of form and matter in his theory of causation.15

                                         SECTION B

Q5. Write short answers to the following in about 150 words each: 10×5=50

(a) “Limits of knowledge and world are determined by my sense perception.” Discuss this claim of Carvakas. 10

(b) Explain the epistemological differences between Sautrantika and Vaibhasika schools of Buddhism. 10

(c) Bring out the significance of the concept of adhyasa in Sankara’s philosophy to develop his metaphysics. 10

(d) Are the arguments given in favour of existence of prakrti adequate in Samkhya philosophy? Discuss. 10

(e) Can arthapatti (postulation) be reduced to anumana (inference)? Discuss it from the Mimamsa point of view. 10

Q6. (a) How is the theory of causation central to the theories of Reality in classical Indian tradition? Discuss. 20

(b) Explain the concept of Karma and discuss its various types according to Jain philosophy.15

(c) How is an absence of an object known according to Naiyayikas and Mimamsakas? Discuss.15

Q7. (a) Bring out the philosophical implications of introducing extraordinary (alaukika) perception in Nyaya philosophy.20

(b) Explain the nature and levels of samprajnata samadhi. How does each level lead more towards asamprajnata samadhi?15

(c) Examine the Samkhya view on liberation that “the self is neither bound nor liberates, nor does it transmigrate”.15

Q8. (a) How does the nature of Brahman differ in the philosophy of Sankara, Ramanuja and Madhva? Discuss critically. 20

(b) How does Nagarjuna explain the concept of Sunyata? 15

(c) How is Sri Aurobindo’s integral yoga an advancement over Patanjala yoga? Discuss.15

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