UPSC Mains Optional Geography Paper 1 (2011)


1. Write short note on the following in about 150 words each : 12×5=60

(a) Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism

(b) Rossby waves and Jet Stream

(c) Salinity patterns in Indian Ocean

(d) Soil profile in Zonal and Azonal soils

(e) Marine Ecosystem

2. (a) Name the climatically controlled agents of erosion. Explain how they differ in terms of properties of matter. Compare the landforms produced by each one of them.  30

(b) Explain the concept of Isostasy as postulated by Airy and Pratt.  30

3. (a) Give an account of global distribution of precipitation.  30

(b)  “Contemporary global climate change is an anthropogenic phenomenon.” Discuss.  30

4. (a) “Temperature, salinity and density differences in ocean water are the prime causes of ocean water circulation.” Elaborate.  30

(b) Define the term biome. List the terrestrial biomes and describe the characteristics of Savanna biome.  30


5. Write short explanatory notes on the following : 12×5=60

(a) Welfare Approach in Human Geography

(b) Secondary cities in the context of urbanization in developing world

(c) Isodapane in the Theory of Industrial Location

(d) Population and Food security

(e) Ingredients of Sustainable Development

6. (a) Discuss the impact of positivism in paradigm shift in Geography.  30

(b) Enumerate alternative strategies of planning for backward regions.  30

7. (a) Distiguish between boundaries and frontiers. Identify different types of boundaries.

(b) Mention the agricultural regions as classified by whittlessey and discuss their relevance.  30

8. (a) Discuss System Approach and its applicability in Geography.  30

(b) Critically examine the salient features of Central Place Theory propounded by Christaller and Losch.  30

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