UPSC Mains Syllabus |UPSC Mains Syllabus 2021 PDF Download

UPSC Mains Syllabus – GS-1

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Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society.

  • Topic 1 / Art & Culture : Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
  • Topic 2/ Modern History : Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues. The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
  • Topic 3/ Post-Independence : Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
  • Topic 4/ World History : History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
  • Topic 5/ Indian Society : Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India. Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies. Effects of globalization on Indian society. Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.
  • Topic 6/ Physical Geography : Salient features of world’s physical geography.
  • Topic 7/ Human and Economic Geography : Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
  • Topic 8/ Geophysical Phenomena : Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

UPSC Mains Syllabus -GS-2  

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GOVERNANCE, CONSTITUTION, POLITY, SOCIAL JUSTICE AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS.

  • Topic 1: Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.
  • Topic 2: Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.
  • Topic 3: Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.
  • Topic 4: Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.
  • Topic 5: Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
  • Topic 6: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.
  • Topic 7: Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Topic 8: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Topic 9: Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.
  • Topic 10: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • Topic 11: Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
  • Topic 12: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
  • Topic 13: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Topic 14: Issues relating to poverty and hunger.
  • Topic 15: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Topic 16: Role of civil services in a democracy.
  • Topic 17: India and its neighbourhood- relations.
  • Topic 18: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Topic 19: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.
  • Topic 20: Important International institutions, agencies, and fora- their structure, mandate.

UPSC Mains Syllabus -GS-3 

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TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, BIO DIVERSITY, ENVIRONMENT, SECURITY AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT

  • Topic 1: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.
  • Topic 2: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.
  • Topic 3: Government Budgeting.
  • Topic 4: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Topic 5: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System- objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
  • Topic 6: Food processing and related industries in India- scope’ and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.
  • Topic 7: Land reforms in India.
  • Topic 8: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
  • Topic 9: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Topic 10: Investment models.
  • Topic 11: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.
  • Topic 12: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
  • Topic 13: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
  • Topic 14: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.
  • Topic 15: Disaster and disaster management.
  • Topic 16: Linkages between development and spread of extremism.
  • Topic 17: Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security.
  • Topic 18: Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money-laundering and its prevention.
  • Topic 19: Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
  • Topic 20: Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

UPSC Mains Syllabus –GS-4 

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ETHICS, INTEGRITY AND APTITUDE

This paper will include questions to test the candidates’ attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions may utilise the case study approach to determine these aspects. The following broad areas will be covered :

  • Topic 1: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.
  • Topic 2: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.
  • Topic 3: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non-partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.
  • Topic 4: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.
  • Topic 5: Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and world.
  • Topic 6: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.
  • Topic 7: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
  • Topic 8: Case Studies on the above issues.

UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper-I Detailed Syllabus

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Important topics and sub-topics in Indian Heritage and Culture 

Important topics 

Sub-topics under each topic 

Indian Philosophy 

  • Philosophy of Buddhism and Jainism 
  • Philosophies associated with religions (Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism, etc) 
  • Other Philosophies (NyayaSamkhyaVaisheshikaYogaPurva  mimamasaVedantaCarvaka, etc) 

Indian Literature 

  • Religious Literature (Vedic, Buddhism, Jainism, Bhakti & Sufi movement, etc) 
  • Non-religious literature (Social, Political, Economic, Sangam literature, etc) 
  • Ancient and Medieval sources (Archaeological and Foreigners literary works) 

Note: Archaeological literature includes Inscriptions/Epigraphs, Numismatics/coins. 

  • Other literary works (Aaranyakas, Upanishads, Puranas etc) 
  • Literary works during the freedom struggle 

Architecture  

  • Cave architecture 
  • School of art (Amaravati, Gandhara and Mathura school) 
  • Temple architecture 
  • Indo-Islamic architecture 
  • Modern architecture 

Temple Architecture 

  • Basics of Temple architecture (Mandapa, Shikara, Gharbhgriha, gopuram, Vimana, etc) 
  • Various styles of temple architecture (Nagara, Vesara, and Dravida) 

Indo-Islamic Art and Architecture 

  • Imperial art and Architecture (Sultanate and Mughal, Vijayanagar and Bahmani) 
  • Provincial art and architecture (Regional architecture from Jaipur, Jaunpur, Bijapur, Malwa, Kashmiretc) 

Modern Art and Architecture 

  • Indo-gothic and Neo-Roman Architecture 
  • Mural, Miniature and wall paintings  
  • Modern painters and techniques etc 

Performing Art 

  • Indian Dance forms 
  • Indian Music (Carnatic and Hindustani Music) 
  • Indian Theatre arts 
  • Indian Puppetry 
  • Indian Martial arts 

Religious Movements in India 

  • Jainism 
  • Buddhism 
  • Brahmanism 
  • Bhakti and Sufi Movements 
  • Sikh religious movement etc 

Other sub-topics in art and Architecture 

  • Languages and their development 
  • Indian Calendar 
  • Indian sculptures and pottery 
  • Contribution of Indians in various fields (Science, art, music, astronomy, Medicine, etc) 
  • Indian Fairs and Festivals 
  • Cultural institutions in India etc 

 

Important topics and sub-topics for Modern History and Post- Independent India: 

Important topics 

Sub-topics under each topic 

History from the middle of the eighteenth century until the present– significant events, personalities, issues 

 

  • India in the Late 18th century 
  • The advent of Europeans and British Conquest in India 
  • India under East India Company 
  • The revolt of 1858 and the administrative changes after that 
  • Political Organizations (Prior to INC and after INC and INC) 
  • Revolutionary organisations 
  • Freedom struggle under Moderate, Extremist and Gandhian phase 
  • India and Neighbourhood relations 
  • Socio-Religious movements in India (19th and 20th Century) 
  • Personalities and their contribution to India’s freedom struggle (Gandhi, Nehru, SC Bose, etc) 

Important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country 

  • Peasants and Tribal Movements in India 
  • Regional movements in various part of India, Princely States   

Others topics 

  • Reforms in various fields under East India Company administration and British administration (Police, education, social, economic, etc) 

Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country 

  • Immediate development in India after Independence 
  • Consolidation of India after Independence (Territorial, Reorganisation of Indian States and Various policy initiatives like Tribal policy, Policy followed in North-East etc) 
  • India under Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi etc. 

 

Important Topics and Sub-topics in World History: 

Important topics 

Sub-topics under each topic 

Various events from the 18th Century to till date 

  • Industrial Revolution 
  • American Revolution 
  • French Revolution 
  • Unification of Italy and Germany 
  • Russian Revolution 
  • Japanese Revolution 
  • Colonization and De-colonization in various parts around the world and its effects 
  • Chinese revolution 
  • World wars and the redrawal of national boundaries 
  • Cold war phase, NAM and the philosophical rivalry 
  • Disintegration of USSR and its aftermath etc 
  • Other Regional challenges like Apartheid, Israel-Palestine conflicts etc 

Political philosophies and their forms and effect on the society. 

  • Capitalism 
  • Communism  
  • Nazism 
  • Fascism 
  • Socialism etc 

 

Important Topics and Sub-topics in Indian Society: 

Important topics 

Sub-topics under each topic 

Salient features of Indian Society 

  • Caste system in India and its dynamics 
  • Sanskritization, Westernisation and Modernisation 
  • Kinship, Marriage and Family  
  • Class development (Middle Class) 

Diversity of India 

  • Unity in Diversity 
  • Types of Diversity exist in India (Religious, Caste, Race, Ethnicity, etc) 
  • Globalisation and Diversity 
  • Factors contributing to Unity amidst Diversity 
  • Challenges associated with Diversity 

Role of women and women’s organization 

  • Origin and evolution of Women Organizations in India 
  • Various women organizations existed in India since freedom struggle 
  • Challenges faced by women/ women organizations 
  • Government initiatives to encourage women / women organizations and the reason behind the same 
  • Women in various fields (agriculture, Industry, education, labour market, science and technology, etc) 
  • Role of men in development of women/women organizations  

Population and associated issues 

  • Population growth and distribution in India 
  • Demographic dividend and demographic curse and its challenges 
  • Population and other issues such as poverty, Employment, environment, resources, women empowerment etc 
  • Population control policies and their impact on population since independence. 
  • Other challenges associated with Population like Missing women, family planning etc 

Poverty and developmental issues 

  • Poverty and various types of poverty and their measurements 
  • Causes and consequences of poverty in India 
  • Vicious cycle of poverty and Hunger 
  • Poverty in rural and urban areas, poverty and women etc and its impacts 
  • Role of non-state actors in alleviating poverty and hunger 
  • Role of government in Poverty alleviation (evolution and impacts of policies, committees, schemes, Acts etc) 

Urbanization, their problems and their remedies 

  • Urbanization and its evolution, causes and concentration in India 
  • Problems and opportunities due to Urbanization 
  • Migration and its impacts like pollution, urban crimes, congestion, waste generation, transport etc. 
  • Slum and Squatter settlements 
  • Urbanization and urban planning in India 
  • Urban out growth and its impact, terms associated like satellite cities etc 
  • Urbanization and feminisation of agriculture 
  • Urbanization and Industrialization and Globalization etc 
  • Government initiatives to equitable urban growth (evolution and impacts of policies, committees, schemes, Acts etc) 

Effects of globalization on Indian society 

  • Globalization and its impacts such as economic, social, environmental etc 
  • impact of globalization on family levelcultural level, among various sections like women, children, elderly etc. 
  •  Impact of globalization on general values, ideas and lifestyle of Indian society 

Social empowerment 

  • Concept, need, evolution and various models of social empowerment 
  • Difference between social empowerment and Political, economic empowerment 
  • Role of non-state actors in social empowerment 
  • Various government initiatives to different sections of society like tribal, women, social and culturally backward sections of people etc. 

communalism, regionalism & secularism 

Communalism 

  • Meaning, type, evolution of Communalism 
  • Reason for prevalence of communalism  
  • Impact of communalism  
  • Role of State and non-state actors in reducing Communalism 

Regionalism 

  • Meaning, type, evolution, son of soil concept of Regionalism 
  • Various regional movements in India since Independence and their impacts like Dravida Nadu movement, Khalistan movement, Telangana movement, Movements in North east etc. 
  • Regionalism and Nationalism 
  • Regionalism and Federalism 
  • Regionalism, Extremism and Separatism differences and concepts  
  • Impact of regionalism in International arena  
  • Constitutional protections against regionalism and government initiatives to strengthen cooperative federalism 

Secularism 

  • Concepts and sources of Indian secularism 
  • Difference between Indian and western Secularism 
  • Secularism and Communalism 
  • Factors threatening secularism and the way ahead 

 

Important Topics and Sub-topics in Geography: 

Important topics 

Sub-topics under each topic 

Physical Geography 

Physical Geography of world 

  • Solar system and the basics of Earth 
  • Geomorphology (Earth’s interior, rock classification, External and Internal forces, Various orders of land form development) 
  • Climatology (Structure, composition, atmosphere, weather and climate, pressure belts, winds, jet streams, precipitation, world climatic regions) 
  • Oceanography (Ocean waves, tidescurrents, tsunamis, temperature and salinity etc) 
  • Bio geography (Soils, classification, distribution, erosion and conversion) 
  • Continents and their evolutions 

 

Physical Geography of India 

  • Location, area and boundary of India 
  • Structure and Relief: Physiographic Divisions 
  • Weather, Climate and Seasons  
  • Bio geography of India 
  • Natural Vegetation, Plant and Animal Life  

Human and Economic Geography 

Human and Economic Geography of World 

  • Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary and quinary activities 
  • Human Geography of world 
  • World Population, Distribution & Density, Races & Tribes, Settlement & Migration 

 

Human and Economic Geography of India 

  • Agriculture and Agro-Climatic Regions 
  • Land Resources  
  • Water Resources  
  • Mineral and Energy Resources  
  • Industries  
  • Transport and Communication  
  • Population, Migration, Settlements 

 

General topics 

  • Natural resources and mineral resources and distribution of key natural resources  
  • Agriculture and agro-climatic regions  
  • Industry and location factors  
  • Map based questions 

Geophysical Phenomena  

  • Earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc. 
  • Geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and their location-changes and flora and fauna and the effects of such changes. 

UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper-II Detailed Syllabus

 

SubjectSyllabusDetailed Syllabus
Indian Polity and Constitution
  • Indian Constitution—Historical Underpinnings, Evolution, Features, Amendments, Significant Provisions and Basic Structure.
  • Comparison of the Indian Constitutional Scheme with that of Other Countries.
  • Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States, Issues and Challenges Pertaining to the Federal Structure, Devolution of Powers and Finances up to Local Levels and Challenges Therein.
  • Separation of Powers between various organs Dispute Redressal Mechanisms and Institutions.
  • Parliament and State Legislatures—Structure, Functioning, Conduct of Business, Powers & Privileges and Issues Arising out of these.
  • Structure, Organization and Functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; Pressure Groups and Formal/Informal Associations and their Role in the Polity.
  • Salient Features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional Posts, Powers, Functions and Responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
  • Statutory, Regulatory and various Quasi-judicial Bodies.

 

 

  • Indian Constitution
    • Historical background
    • Making of the Constitution
    • Salient Features of the Constitution
    • Preamble of the Constitution
    • Union and its territory
    • Citizenship
    • Fundamental Rights
    • Directive Principles of State Policy
    • Fundamental Duties
    • Amendment of the Constitution
    • Basic Structure of the Constitution
    • Comparison of the Indian Constitutional Scheme with that of Other Countries.
  • Functions and Responsibilities of the Union and the States, Issues and Challenges Pertaining to the Federal Structure, Devolution of Powers and Finances up to Local Levels and Challenges Therein.
    • Parliamentary System
    • Federal System
    • Centre-State Relations
    • Inter-State Relations
    • Emergency Provisions
  • Separation of Powers between various organs Dispute Redressal Mechanisms and Institutions.
  • Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.
    • Parliamentary Committees
    • Parliamentary Forums
    • Parliamentary Group
  • Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government.
    • President
    • Vice-President
    • Prime Minister
    • Central Council of Ministers
    • Cabinet Committees
    • Supreme Court
    • Judicial Review
    • Judicial Activism
    • Governor
    • Chief Minister
    • State Council of Ministers
    • High Courts
    • Subordinate Courts
  • Pressure Groups and Formal/Informal Associations and their Role in the Polity.
  • Salient Features of the Representation of People’s Act.
  • Appointment to various Constitutional Posts, Powers, Functions and Responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
    • Election Commission
    • Union Public Service Commission
    • State Public Service Commission
    • Finance Commission
    • National Commission for SCs, STs and OBCs
    • Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities
    • Comptroller and Auditor General of India
    • Attorney General of India
    • Advocate General of State
  • Statutory, Regulatory and various Quasi-judicial Bodies.
    • NITI Aayog
    • National and State Human Rights Commission
    • Central and State Information Commission
    • Central Vigilance Commission
    • Central Bureau of Investigation
    • Lokpal and Lokayuktas  

 

Governance
  • Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation.
  • Development Processes and the Development Industry — the Role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
  • Important Aspects of Governance, Transparency and Accountability, E-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; Citizens Charters, Transparency & Accountability and institutional and other measures.
  • Role of Civil Services in a Democracy.
  • Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation.
  • Development Processes and the Development Industry — the Role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.
  • Important Aspects of Governance, Transparency and Accountability, E-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; Citizens Charters, Transparency & Accountability and institutional and other measures.
    • About Governance
    • Difference between Government and Governance
    • Stakeholders of Governance
    • Good Governance in India and its initiatives
    • Minimum government and maximum governance
    • Sevottam Model
    • Social Audit
    • Models of e-Governance 
  • Role of Civil Services in a Democracy.
Social Justice
  • Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections of the population by the Centre and States and the Performance of these Schemes; Mechanisms, Laws, Institutions and Bodies constituted for the Protection and Betterment of these Vulnerable Sections.
  • Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to Poverty and Hunger.
  • Welfare Schemes for Vulnerable Sections of the population by the Centre and States and the Performance of these Schemes; Mechanisms, Laws, Institutions and Bodies constituted for the Protection and Betterment of these Vulnerable Sections.
    • Children
    • Women
    • Scheduled Castes, Schedule Tribes and Other Backward Castes
    • Senior Citizen
    • Disabled Persons
    • Minorities
    • LGBT Community
    • Poor Persons
  • Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.
  • Issues relating to Poverty and Hunger.
    • About Poverty and types
    • Vicious cycle of poverty
    • Causes and its impact
    • Solutions 
    • Various government initiatives to curb poverty and hunger

 

International Relations
  • India and its Neighborhood- Relations.
  • Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
  • Effect of Policies and Politics of Developed and Developing Countries on India’s interests, Indian Diaspora.
  • Important International Institutions, agencies and fora – their Structure, Mandate.
  • India and its Neighborhood- Relations.
    • Border issues
    • Borders and Boundaries-key agreements
    • India and Bangladesh
    • India and Nepal
    • India and Bhutan
    • India and Sri Lanka
    • India and Pakistan 
    • India and Afghanistan
    • India and Maldives
  • Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
    • G77
    • G20
    • G7
    • G4
    • ASEAN
    • SAARC
    • BIMSTEC
    • Land and Maritime agreements
  • Important International Institutions, agencies and fora – their Structure, Mandate.
    • UNGA
    • UNSC
    • WTO
    • WB
    • WEF
    • ADB
    • AIIB
    • OECD
    • BRICS Bank
    • IBSA Forum
    • OPEC 
    • OIC
  • Effect of Policies and Politics of Developed and Developing Countries on India’s interests, Indian Diaspora.
    • Evolution of India’s Foreign Policy

 

 

UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper-III Detailed Syllabus

SubjectSyllabusDetailed Syllabus
Indian Economy and Economic Development
  • Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment.
  • Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it.
  • Government Budgeting.
  • Major Crops – Cropping Patterns in various parts of the country, – Different Types of Irrigation and Irrigation Systems; Storage, Transport and Marketing of Agricultural Produce and Issues and Related Constraints; E-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies and Minimum Support Prices; Public Distribution System – Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping; Issues of Buffer Stocks and Food Security; Technology Missions; Economics of Animal-Rearing.
  • Food Processing and Related Industries in India- Scope’ and Significance, Location, Upstream and Downstream Requirements, Supply Chain Management.
  • Land Reforms in India.
  • Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
  • Investment Models.
  • Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment.
  • Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it.
    • Introduction
    • Dimensions
    • Need of Inclusive Growth in India
    • Poverty
    • Unemployment
    • Inequality
    • Challenges to Inclusive Growth
    • Steps taken by Government for Inclusive Growth
  • Government Budgeting.
    • Meaning and importance
    • Various components of Budget
    • Stages in Budget enactment 
    • Lacunae in the Budgetary process
    • Budgetary reforms
    • Evolution of Budgeting
    • Highlights of Union Budget
  • Major Crops – Cropping Patterns in various parts of the country
  • Different Types of Irrigation
    • Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation
    • Surface and Subsurface Irrigation
  • Irrigation Systems
    • Wells and Tube Wells
    • Canal Irrigation
    • Tank Irrigation
    • Schemes of Government related to Irrigation
  • Storage, Transport and Marketing of Agricultural Produce and Issues and Related Constraints
    • Warehousing
    • Cold Storage
    • Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC)
    • Farms Act, 2020
  • E-technology in the aid of farmers.
    • Uses of e-technology for farmers
    • Various Initiatives related to e-technology to aid farmers
    • Private sectors initiatives
    • Agriculture sector and Digital India 
    • Challenges of using e-technology in agriculture
  • Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies and Minimum Support Prices
    • Types of Agriculture Subsidies in India
    • Issues related to Agriculture Subsidies
    • Agriculture Subsidies and WTO
    • Agriculture Pricing Policies
  • Public Distribution System – Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping.
  • Issues of Buffer Stocks and Food Security.
    • Qualitative and Quantitative dimensions of Food Security
    • Various challenges in ensuring Food Security
    • National Food Security Act, 2013
    • Various schemes and initiatives of Government to ensure Food Security
    • WTO and Food Security
  • Technology Missions.
  • Economics of Animal-Rearing.
    • Challenges faced by Animal Husbandry Sector
    • Pink and White Revolution
    • Operation Flood
    • Fisheries
    • Government Initiatives
  • Food Processing and Related Industries in India- Scope’ and Significance, Location, Upstream and Downstream Requirements, Supply Chain Management.
    • Evolution of Food Processing Industry
    • Schemes
    • Challenges
    • Policy Initiatives
    • WTO and Food Processing Industry
  • Land Reforms in India.
  • Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth.
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
    • Infrastructure and economic development
    • Constraints
    • Government initiatives
    • Telecommunication
    • Infrastructure and North-Eastern Region
  • Investment Models.
    • Models used in Planning process
    • Infrastructure-Investment Model
    • Models of Foreign Investments

 

Science and Technology
  • Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life.
  • Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-technology, Bio-technology and issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights.
  • Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life.
    • Food technology
    • Business technology
    • Agriculture
    • Space
    • Research and Development etc.
  • Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology
    • Important names associated with Science and Technology
      • C V Raman
      • Vikram Sarabhai
      • APJ Abdul Kalam 
  • Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-technology, Bio-technology and issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights (IPR).
    • Types of IPR
    • IPR Regime in India
    • Various International Agreements related to IPR

 

Bio-diversity and Environment
  • Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.
  • Biodiversity
    • Indian Biodiversity Animal Diversity of India
    • Plant Diversity of India
    • Marine Organism
    • Protected Area Network
  • Conservation
    • Conservation efforts
    • Acts and Policies
    • Institution and Measures
    • International Environment Conventions
    • Environmental Organizations
  • Environmental Pollution and Degradation
    • Air Pollution
    • Water Pollution
    • Noise Pollution
    • Soil Pollution
    • Radio Active Pollution
    • E-Waste
    • Solid Waste
    • Bio-remediation
  • Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA).
    • Need for EIA
    • EIA cycle and its procedures
    • Components of EIA
    • Procedure of Public Hearing
    • Drawbacks and Recommendations of EIA
Security
  • Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism.
  • Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.
  • Challenges to Internal Security through Communication Networks, Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges, Basics of Cyber Security; Money-Laundering and its prevention.
  • Security Challenges and their Management in Border Areas – Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism.
  • Various Security Forces and Agencies and their Mandate.
  • Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism.
    • Terrorism, Extremism and Radicalisation
    • Naxalism, its origin and evolution
    • Objective, strategy and causes of Naxalism
    • Initiatives of government to curb Naxalism
    • North-East Insurgency
    • Jammu and Kashmir Insurgency
  • Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.
    • Challenges posed by them
    • Terrorism and history of terrorism in India
    • Counter terrorism strategy of India
    • Steps taken by government and various global actions
  • Challenges to Internal Security through Communication Networks
    • About Communication Network
    • Its role in today’s world
    • Types of threat to Communication Networks
    • Importance of securing Communication Network.
    • Challenges in securing Communication Networks
  • Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges
  • Basics of Cyber Security; Money-Laundering and its prevention.
  • Security Challenges and their Management in Border Areas – Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism.
  • Border Management in India
    • Indo-China Border
    • Indo-Pakistan
    • Indo-Nepal
    • Indo-Bhutan
    • Indo-Bangladesh
    • Indo-Myanmar
    • Indo-SriLanka
    • Measures and initiatives of Border Management
    • Coastal Security
  • Various Security Forces and Agencies and their Mandate.
    • Indian Armed Forces
    • Central Armed Police Forces
      • CISF
      • CRPF
      • ITBP
      • SSB etc.
    • Central Paramilitary Forces
      • Assam Rifles
      • Indian Coast Guard
  • Security Agencies in India

 

 

 

Disaster Management
  • Disaster and Disaster Management.
  • Disasters
  • Classification of Disasters
    • Natural Hazards
      • Earthquake
      • Tsunami
      • Cyclone
      • Floods
      • Drought
      • Landslides
      • Heat Wave
      • Cold Wave
      • Wildfire
    • Anthropogenic Hazards
      • Biological Disasters
      • Industrial Chemical Disasters
      • Nuclear Disasters
  • Hazards, vulnerabilities and risks
  • Disaster management cycle
    • Preparedness
    • Risk reduction
    • Planning, relief and rehabilitation
    • Recovery and management post-disaster
  • Disaster management in India
    • Legal and institutional framework
    • Vulnerability profile of India
    • Disaster Management Act, 2005
    • 2nd ARC  3rd Report-Crisis Management
  • Global framework on Disaster Management-Sendai Framework
  • Various national and international initiatives to curb disasters
  • International Cooperation on Disaster Management

UPSC IAS Mains General Studies Paper-IV Detailed Syllabus

Subject-Ethics, Integrity and AptitudeDetailed Syllabus
Ethics and Human Interface
  • Essence, Determinants and Consequences of Ethics in – Human Actions
  • Dimensions of Ethics
  • Ethics – in Private and Public Relationships.
  • Human Values – Lessons from the Lives and Teachings of Great Leaders, Reformers and Administrators
  • Role of Family Society and Educational Institutions in Inculcating Values.
Attitude
  • Content, Structure, Function
  • Its Influence and Relation with Thought and Behaviour
  • Moral and Political Attitudes
  • Social Influence and Persuasion
Aptitude and Foundational Values
  • Aptitude and Foundational Values for Civil Service Integrity
  • Impartiality and Non-partisanship
  • Objectivity
  • Dedication to Public Service
  • Empathy
  • Tolerance and Compassion towards the weaker-sections.
Emotional Intelligence
  • Emotional Intelligence-Concepts, and their Utilities and Application in Administration and Governance.
Moral Thinkers and Philosophers
  • Contributions of Moral Thinkers and Philosophers from India and World.
Public/Civil Services Values and Ethics in Public Administration
  • Status and Problems
  • Ethical Concerns and Dilemmas in Government and Private Institutions
  • Laws, Rules, Regulations and Conscience as Sources of Ethical Guidance
  • Accountability and Ethical Governance Strengthening of Ethical and Moral Values in Governance
  • Ethical Issues in International Relations and Funding
  • Corporate Governance.
Probity in Governance
  • Concept of Public Service
  • Philosophical Basis of Governance and Probity
  • Information Sharing and Transparency in Government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work Culture, Quality of Service Delivery, Utilization of Public Funds, Challenges of Corruption.
Case Studies
  • Case Studies on above issues.
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