List of National Parks in India

What are National Parks?
  • A National Park is a protected area constituted for the protection and conservation of wildlife.  They are declared in areas that are considered to be of adequate ecological, geomorphological and natural significance.
  • National Parks in India are declared under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • They are IUCN category II protected areas.
  • There are 104 national parks in India as of 2019.
  •  Hailey National Park (presently known as Jim Corbett National Park), established in 1936 is India’s first National Park.

In the last article, we discussed about biosphere reserves. Now let us compare National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves.

Comparison between National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Biosphere Reserves
ParameterNational ParkWildlife SanctuaryBiosphere Reserve
Protection typeProtection of wildlifeReserved for species-oriented plant or animalEcosystem oriented-reserves all forms of life
LegislationWildlife Protection ActWildlife Protection ActInternationally recognized within the framework of UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme and nominated by national governments.
Level of ProtectionGreater degree of protection than sanctuariesLesser degree of protectionGreater Degree of Protection
Regulation of Human ActivitiesActivities like grazing, hunting, forestry or cultivation etc. are strictly prohibited.Allowed to a limited extent in the wildlife sanctuariesNo interference except in buffer and transition zone
BoundariesClearly delineated by legislationNot sacrosanctClearly delineated by legislation
Upgradation and DowngradationCannot be downgraded to a Wildlife SanctuaryCan be upgraded to a Wildlife SanctuaryNational Parks and wildlife Sanctuaries may become a part of Biosphere Reserve
IUCN StatusCategory II of the protected areasCategory IV of protected areas.roughly corresponds to IUCN Category V of protected areas.
A complete list of National Parks in India:
Sl.NoState/UTNational ParkMajor RiverFlora/ Forest TypeFaunaNote
1Andaman & Nicobar IslandsCampbell Bay NPTropical evergreen forest, orchids,  tree fern, mangrovesCrab-eating Macaque, Giant robber crabs, Saltwater crocodile, Giant leatherback turtle, Megapode, Andaman Wild PigPart of the Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve.
2Galathea Bay NPTropical and subtropical moist broad leaf forests.Giant leather back Turtle, Water monitor lizard, Reticulated python, Nicobar Tree Shrews, Nicobar Long-Tailed Macaque,Part of the Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve.
3Mahatama Gandhi Marine (Wandoor) NPMangroves, Gurjan, Bamboo, FernsWhite-Bellied Sea Eagle, Water Monitor Lizard, Banded Sea Snake, Estuarine crocodiles
4Middle Button Island NPMoist Deciduous ForestSpotted deer, Fruit Bat, White-Bellied Sea Eagle, Sooty Tern, Monitor lizards, Dugongs, Andaman Serpent Eagle
5Mount Harriett NPtropical evergreen, hilltop tropical evergreen and littoral forestsAndaman Wild Pig, Andaman Masked Palm Civet, Andaman Rat, , Andaman cuckoo dove,Also a Butterfly Hotspot
6North Button Island NPMoist Deciduous ForestCorals, Spotted deer, Blue whale, Monitor lizard, Dolphins, Dugongs, Humpback Snappers, Giant Groupers
7Rani Jhansi Marine NPLowland evergreen rain forest, semi-evergreen rain forest and mangrove forests.Dugong, Fruit- eating bats, Daniel’s Forest Lizard,  Andaman Island Grass Skink, Andaman Water Monitor, Corals
8Saddle Peak NPAndaman Tropical Evergreen, Andaman Moist Deciduous, Andaman Semi-evergreen, Canebrake, Wet Bamboo and littoral.Andaman wild pig, Andaman Horseshoe Bat, Andaman hill mynah, Imperial pigeon, Andaman Teal
9South Button Island NPDugongs, water lizards, sea turtles, dolphins and blue whales.

Endemic: Subspecies of edible-nest swiftlet

10Andhra PradeshPapikonda NPGodavariDry deciduous Teak forest with Bamboo, Terminalia, and other species conforming to the Eastern Ghat vegetation.Tiger, Hyena, Four horned antelope, Spotted deer, Muggers
11Rajiv Gandhi (Rameswaram) NPPennaEarlier it was known as Rameswaram Reserve Forest


Recently in news due to air pollution caused by lime stone mines and cement companies

12Sri Venkateswara NPDry deciduous mixed forest, Patches of mixed deciduous forest

Endemic: Red Sanders, Shorea talura, Sandalwood

Tiger, Golden Gecko, Slender Loris, Indian Giant Squirrel, Tree Shrew and Flying Lizard
13Arunachal PradeshMouling NPSiyom


13 rivers finally join Siang River

Forms a transition zone between tropical forests at lower altitudes to most temperate forestRed Pandas, Deers, Hoolock Gibbons and TigersPart of Dihang-Dibang Biosphere Reserve.
14Namdapha NPNoa DihingEvergreen Forests, Moist deciduous forests, sub-tropical forests, Temperate Forests and Alpine


Rare Blue vanda orchid found

Tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, snow leopard, golden cat, marble cat, , red panda,The area falls under both the Palearctic and Indo Malayan biogeographic areas


The park harbours the northernmost lowland evergreen rainforests in the world at 27°N latitude


Also a Tiger Reserve

15AssamDibru-Saikhowa NPDibru, BramhaputraForest Type: moist deciduous forest, bamboo, swamp forests, cane brakes and grasslands.

Endemic Flora: Rauvolfia (Sarpagandhi), Benteak, Livistona (orchid)


Endemic Fauna: White winged wood duck, Hollock-gibbon, Wild buffaloDesignated as Biosphere Reseve
16Kaziranga NPBramhaputra, Mora Dhansiri, DiphluForest Type: alluvial inundated grasslands, alluvial savannah woodlands, tropical moist mixed deciduous forests, and tropical semi-evergreen forests.Tiger, One-horned RhinoTiger Reserve (highest density of tigers in the world)



UNESCO Natural World Heritage Site


Recognized as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International

17Manas NPManas BekiMain Forest types: semi-evergreen forests mixed moist and dry deciduous forests, alluvial grasslands, creeper swamp forest, Eastern seasonal Swamp Forest, Cane and bamboo brakes

Endemic Flora: Catechu tree, Sissoo, White siris

Endemic Fauna: Pygmy hog, Golden lungur , Assam roofed turtleElephant Reserve


Tiger Reserve


Biosphere Reserve


Wildlife Sanctuary


UNESCO Natural World Heritage site


18Nameri NPJia BhoroliSemi-evergreen, moist deciduous forests with cane and bamboo brakes and narrow strips of open grassland along rivers.Tiger,Black Panther, , Himalayan Black Bear, Elephant
19Rajiv Gandhi Orang NPBramhaputraEastern Himalayan Moist Deciduous Forest, Eastern Seasonal Swamp Forest, Eastern Wet Alluvial Grassland, Savannah Grassland,

Degraded Grassland

Tiger, Pygmy hog, elephant, Bengal florican
20BiharValmiki NPGandak, Burhi Gandak, PandaiForest Types: Moist mixed deciduous

Open – land vegetation

Sub-mountainous semi-evergreen formation

Freshwater swamps

Riparian fringes

Alluvial grasslands and high hill savannah


Tiger, Rhino, black Bear, Nepal kaleej pheasantTiger Reserve


Wildlife Sanctuary

21ChattisgarhGuru Ghasidas (Sanjay) NPUmaria, KodmarMoist deciduous forest consisting mainly of salTiger, Leopard, Golden Hooded Oriole, Egyptian vulturePart of the Sanjay-Dubri Tiger Reserve system
22Indravati (Kutru) NPIndravatiSouthern Dry Mixed Deciduous Forests and Southern Moist Mixed Deciduous ForestsTiger, leopard, sloth bear, striped hyenaTiger Reserve
23Kanger Valley NPKangermixed moist deciduous type of forests with predominance of sal, teak and bambooTiger, Leopard, mouse deer, Bastar hill Myena
24GoaMollem NPMandoviWest Coast tropical evergreen forests, West Coast semi-evergreen forests and moist deciduous forests.Black Panther, bonnet macaque, Slender lorisIt is the core area of Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary
25GujaratVansda NPAmbikaDeciduous Forest, bambooIndian leopard, rhesus macaque,
26Blackbuck (Velavadar) NPLies between Parvalia and Alang which drains into Gulf of CambayGrassland, shrublandBlackbuck, wolf and lesser floricanconservation programs for the blackbuck, wolf and lesser florican ongoing
27Gir NPHiran, Shetrunji, Datardi, Shingoda, Machhundri, Godavari and Raval.Dry Deciduous Scrub, Dry Savannah

Dominant Species: Teak

Asiatic lion, Chital, chinkara, Indian Leopardonly area in the world, where Asiatic lions occur



28Marine (Gulf of Kachchh) NPCorals, Blue Whales, greater flamingo, Whale sharksCore area of Marine Sanctuary
29HaryanaKalesar NPYamuna River forms the Eastern boundaryDense old forest dominated by SalBarking Deer, Ghoral, Leoprda
30Sultanpur NPTropical and Dry DeciduousMigratory Birds: Amur falcons, Egyptian vultures, plovers

Resident Birds: Common hoopoe, paddyfield pipit, purple sunbird,

Also a Bird Sanctuary
31Himachal PradeshGreat Himalayan NPTirthan, Sainj, Jiwa Nal, and ParvatiTemperate broad-leaved forests, Temperate conifer forests ,Upper temperate broad-leaved and mixed conifer forests, Sub-alpine (Birch-Rhododendron) forests, Alpine scrubs ,Alpine meadows ,Riverine forests (along the rivers)

, Temperate grassy slopes, Temperate secondary scrub near village pastures and forest edges.


Himalayan Musk Deer,  Snow Leopard, Himalayan Brown Bear, Himalayan tahrUNESCO Natural World Heritage Site
32Inderkilla NP
33Khirganga NP
34Pin Valley NPPin, SpitiDry Temperate, Alpine dominated by Juniper and Birch TreesTibetan Gazelle, Wooly Hare, Snow Leopard, Himalayan Ibex, Tibet Snow Finch,
35Simbalbara NPsal forest, mixed forest,

mixed forest grassy slopes, mixed forest riverine, pine mixed woodland and

Mixed forest with khair plantations.

Himalayan Bear, Brown Bear, Snow Leopard
36Jammu and KashmirCity Forest (Salim Ali) NPMangrove shrubberiesKashmiri stag, Chakkar, Snow Cock, Serow, hangul
37Dachigam NPDaghwanConiferous forest, grasslands, scrubs Kashmiri Stag, leopards, Himalayan Gray Langurs, Monal
38Hemis NPMarkha, Sumdah, Rumbak, bounded by Indus in the northpine forests, alpine shrublands and meadows, and alpine tundra.Argali, Bharal, Shapu, Tibetan wolf, Snow Leopard
39Kishtwar NPKiar, Nath, Kibar, Marwa, RinnayConiferous, Alpine, Meadows and Scrub forests.Himalayan Snowcock, Brown Bear
40JharkahandBetla NPNorth KoyalSal and Bamboo forestSloth Bear, PantherInitially it comprised the Palamau Tiger Reserve
41KarnatakaAnshi NPKaliNorth Western Ghats montane rain forests and North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests


Tiger, Black PantherPart of Kali Tiger Reserve
42Bandipur NPKabini, MoyarDry Deciduous Scrub, Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest,

Tropical Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest


Tiger, LeopradAlso a Tiger Reserve
43Bannerghatta NPSuvarnamukhiMoist Deciduous, ScrubsElephant, LeopardBiological Park


First biological park in India to have a fenced forested elephant sanctuary


Butterfly Park

44Kudremukh NPTunga, Bhadra, NetravatiEvergreen, Semi-evergreen, eucalyptusTiger, Leopard, Lion-tailed Macaque, Malabar trogon, Malabar whistling thrush
45Nagarahole (Rajiv Gandhi) NPLakshmmantirtha river, Sarati Hole, Nagar Hole, Balle Halla, Kabini RiverNorth Western Ghats moist deciduous forests with (teak and rosewood), Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests with Pala indigo and thorny wattle, Sub-montane valley swamp forests with several species of the Eugenia genus.Tiger, LeopradTiger Reserve
46KeralaAnamudi Shola NPChinnar, PambarWest coast tropical evergreen, Southern Hilltop Tropical Vegetation


Shola Forest predominantly

Elephant, Tiger, Panther, Parantica nilgiriensis (a RET listed species of butterfly)Consists of 3 Shola reserve forest:: Idivara Shola Reserve, Pullardi Shola Reserve and Mannavan Shola Reserve
47Eravikulam NPPeriyar, Chalakudiyar, CauverySouthern montane wet temperate forests, southern west coast evergreen forest, Mixed Deciduous


Predominance of shoal forest, grasslands


Endemic: The genus impatiens has 6 species endemic to grasslands

Nilgiri Tahr, Nilgiri marten


Endemic: Salea Anamalayana, Ahatulla disper (reptiles)

The highest peak in peninsular India, Anamudi (2690 m) is situated in the Park.
48Mathikettan Shola NPPanniyarWest coast tropical evergreen forests, west coast semi evergreen forests, moist deciduous forests, shola forests and grasslands
49Pambadum Shola NPPambarShola Forests, GrasslandsElephant, Gaur, Leopard, Wild boar
50Periyar NPPeriyar, PambaWest Coast Tropical Evergreen Forests, West Coast Semi Evergreen Forests, Moist Deciduous Forest, Southern Montane Wet Grassland, Eucalyptus PlantationsTiger, Leoprad, Elephant, Niligiri TahrTiger Reserve


Elephant Reserve

51Silent Valley NPBharathapuzha River, Kuntipuzha RiverSouth Western Ghats mountain rain forests and tropical moist evergreen forestNilgiri wood-pigeon, Malabar parakeet, Malabar grey hornbill, Great Indian Hornbill, lion-tailed macaque, Niligiri langur, Malabar giant squirrel, Nilgiri tahr
52Madhya PradeshBandhavgarh NPCharangangaMoist Peninsular Low Level Sal,

West Gangetic Moist Mixed Deciduous Forests

Tiger, leopard, wild dogAlso a Tiger Reserve
53Fossil NPNarmada 

Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest








Tiger, Leopard, Wild Dog, Gaur, ChinkaraFossils include palms, gymnosperms, angiosperms – monocotyledons, bryophytes.


Plant evolution in this area was in its initial stages because of the absence of Di-cotyledons.




54Indira Priyadarshini Pench NPPench, KanhanDry Teak Bearing Forest,  Southern Dry Deciduous Mixed ForestTiger, leopardAlso a Tiger Reserve
55Kanha NPBanjar, HalonSouthern Tropical Moist and Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest, Peninsular Sal ForestsTiger, Leoprad, BarasinghaAlso a Tiger Reserve


In 2017, it became first tiger reserve in India to officially introduce a mascot named Bhoorsingh the Barasingha.

56Madhav NPSakya Sagar and Madhav  Sagar Lakes created on Manier RiverDry Mixed Deciduous ForestChinkara, Black Buck, Leopard, Migratory Birds: Pochard, Pintail, Geal
57Panna NPKenSouthern Tropical Dry Deciduous Dry Teak Forest, Northern Tropical Dry Deciduous Mixed Forest, Dry Deciduous Scrub Forest, Boswellia Forest, Dry Bamboo Brakes, Anogeissus pendula Forest.Links the eastern and western wildlife populations of the Vindhyan ranges.Also a Tiger Reserve
58Sanjay NPUmaria, KodmarMixed Deciduous Forest mainly of Sal, Bori Teak Forests, bamboo, Tendua etcTiger, Leopard, ChitalAlso a Tiger Reserve
59Satpura NPDenwaMoist deciduous forest consisting mainly of salTiger, BlackbuckAlso a Tiger Reserve
60Van Vihar NPSal, Bel, Amaltas, Babul, tendua etcCaptive and herbivores. All carnivorous animals are kept inside enclosed areas and herbivores are allowed to roam freely.
61Kuno National ParkPart of Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregionLatest to be established (2018)
62MaharashtraChandoli NPWarnaMalabar Coast moist forests and North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests.Tiger, Leopards, BlackbucksPart of Shayadri Tiger Reserve
63Gugamal NPDolarSouthern dry deciduous forest.Tiger, Leopard, Ussuri Dholepart of Melghat Tiger Reserve
64Nawegaon NPMajor Source of water: Nawegaon lakeSouthern Tropical Dry Deciduous ForestsTiger, Panther, Sloth bearsPart of Nawegaon-Nagzira Tiger Reserve
65Pench (Jawaharlal Nehru) NPPench, kanhanDry Teak Bearing Forest,  Southern Dry Deciduous Mixed ForestTiger, Leopard, SambarTiger Reserve
66Sanjay Gandhi (Borivilli) NPtwo lakes, Vihar Lake and Tulsi Lake,Southern mixed-deciduous forestChital, Barking Deer, Crocodiles (Tulsi lake)
67Tadoba NPTadoba lake, Kolsa lake and Andhari riverSouthern Tropical Dry Deciduous ForestTiger, Leopard, sloth BearsPart of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve
68ManipurKeibul-Lamjao NPLoktak lakeSemi-Evergreen ForestFamous for brow-antlered deer(Sangai)Part of Keibul-Lamjao Conservation Area


69MeghalayaBalphakram NPOrigin of Mahadeo, Maheshkola, Goneswari, Kanai and ChimiteDeciduous Forest


Famous for Pitcher plant


wild water buffalo, red panda, elephant, tiger, golden catoften termed as the ‘land of spirits’ and the ‘abode of perpetual winds’
70Nokrek Ridge NPGanol, Dareng and SimsangEvergreen and semi-evergreen deciduous forestsSlow Loris, tiger, leopardCore of Nokrek Biosphere Reserve
71MizoramMurlen NPtropical, semi-evergreen and sub montane ForestsTiger, Leopard, Himalayan Black Bear, Serrow, Hollock Gibbon
72Phawngpui Blue Mountain NPKolodyneSub-tropical Broadleaf, Tropical Evergreen forests and GrasslandsBlyth’s tragopan, Tiger, mountain bamboo partridge, oriental pied hornbill, purple cochoa,
73NagalandIntanki NPGrasslands, Tropical Deciduous Forest, Evergreen ForestsHoolock gibbon, Golden langur, Palm civets, Tiger
74OdhisaBhitarkanika NPEstuarine region of Brahmani- BaitaraniMangrove Forestssaltwater crocodile, white crocodile, Indian python, black ibisRamsar Site
75Simlipal NPBudhabalanga, Palpala Bhandan, Kharkai River and DeoNorthern Tropical Semi Evergreen Forests,

Northern Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests,

Dry Deciduous Hill Forests, High Level Sal Forest, Grassland and Savannah

Tiger, Leopard, ElephantAlso Tiger Reserve
76RajasthanMukundra Hills NPRamzan, Ahu, Kali and Chambal.


Tropical dry Deciduous Forest and Tropical thorn Forest


Tiger, Panther, Sloth bearAlso a Tiger Reserve
77Desert NPsewan grass and aak shrub , thornsGreat Indian Bustard, Desert Fox, Blackbuck
78Keoladeo Ghana NPropical dry deciduous forests intermixed with dry grasslandsMigratory Waterfowl, Siberian CraneFormerly known as Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary


World natural Heritage Site

79Ranthambhore NPBanas, ChambalNorthern Tropical Dry Deciduous ForestTiger, Leopard, CharacalAlso a Tiger Reserve
80Sariska NPChambalTropical Dry Deciduous Forest,

Tropical thorn Forest

leopard, caracal, rusty spotted catAlso a Tiger Reserve
81SikkimKhangchendzonga NPTesstaSub-tropical broad leaved hill forest, Himalayan wet temperate forest, and temperate broad leaved forest, mixed coniferous forest, sub-alpine a forests and dry alpine forest


Endemic: Sikkim Rhododendron, Sikkim Mahonia

Tibetan sheep, Musk deer, Monal pheasant, Snow patridgeCore of Biosphere Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve


India’s First World Mixed Heritage site

82Tamil NaduGuindy NPtropical dry evergreen scrub and thorn forestsblackbuck, chital, pangolin
83Gulf of Mannar Marine NPTropical Dry Broad-leafed forest, seaweed communities, sea grass communities, coral reefs, salt marshes and mangrove forestsHawks bill turtle, Dugongs, WhalesCore of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve
84Indira Gandhi (Annamalai) NPAliayar , Apambar , Chinnar, Parambikulamwet evergreen forest and semi-evergreen forest, montane shola-grassland, moist deciduous, dry deciduous, thorn forests and marshesTiger, Elephant, DholeAlso a Tiger Reserve
85Mudumalai NPMoyarTropical moist deciduous ,Tropical dry deciduous forest occurs in the middle, southern tropical dry thorn forestsTiger, endangered Indian white-rumped vulture
86Mukurthi NPBillithadahalla, Pykara and Kundah riversmontane grasslands and shrublandsNilgiri Tahr, tigerPart of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
87TelanganaKasu Brahmananda Reddy NPTropical Dry Deciduouspangolin, small Indian civet
88Mahaveer Harina Vanasthali NPDry deciduous forest mixed with scrub jungle and grasslandsBlackbuck, Water MonitorDeer National park
89Mrugavani NPTropical dry DeciduousPanther, Cheetal, Sambar,
90TripuraClouded Leopard NPMixed Deciduous ForestClouded Leopard, barking deerpart of Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary
91Bison (Rajbari) NP
92Uttar PradeshDudhwa NPSuheli and MohanaNorth Indian Moist Deciduous type with predominance of Saltigers, leopards, Asiatic black bearsPart of Dudhwa Tiger Reserve
93UttarakhandCorbett NPRamgangaMoist Deciduous Forest, Tropical Dry Deciduous Forest, Himalayan Subtropical Pine ForestsTiger, leopard, elephant, sambar,Also Tiger Reserve
94Gangotri NPWestern Himalayan su conifer forests, Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadowssnow leopard, ibex, tahr, Himalayan barbet,
95Govind NPTonswestern Himalayan broadleaf forests, western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests and western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadowsSnow Leopard, Himalayan tahr, Asian black bearThe Snow Leopard Project started by the Government of India is being managed here
96Nanda Devi NPRishigangamixed temperate and subalpinesnow leopard, Asiatic black bear, brown bear, Himalayan musk deerPart of Nandadevi Biosphere Reserve
97Rajaji NPRawasanBroadleaved deciduous forests, riverine vegetation, scrubland, grasslands and pine forestsTiger, Himalayan Black BearAlso a Tiger Reserve
98Valley of Flowers NPMixed Temperate and subalpine



Aconitum falconeri, A. balfouri, Himalayan maple the blue Himalayan poppy and Saussurea atkinsoni.

Snow Leopard, Musk Deer, Red FoxPart of NandaDevi Biosphere Reserve
99West BengalBuxa NPJainti, Kaatulam NalaNorthern Dry Deciduous Forest, Eastern Bhabar, Terai Sal, East Himalayan Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest, Sub-Montane Semi-Evergreen Forest, Northern Tropical Evergreen ForestTiger, elephant, leopard cat,Also a Tiger Reserve
100Gorumara NPMurti River and Raidak RiverTerai-Duar savanna and grasslands, Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forestsIndian Rhino, elephant
101Jaldapara NPTorsasavannah covered with tall elephant grasses.Indian one-horned rhinoceros, Leopard, Elephants
102Neora Valley NPNeoraSino-Himalayan Temperate Forest, Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest, Indo-Chinese Tropical Moist ForestLeopard, civet, black bear, sloth bear,
103Singalila NPRiver Rammam and River SirikholaEastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests, Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests, Himalayan Sub-Tropical Pine Forest red panda, leopard cat, barking deer, yellow-throated marten, Himalayan Newt
104Sunderban NPMeghnaTidal Swamp Forests, Saline Water Type Mixed Forests, Brackish Water Type Mixed Forests, Palm Swamp TypeTiger, estuarine crocodileAlso a Tiger Reserve


This article is a part of the Series of Articles Important for Prelims 2020. To see the full list of articles, visit this page.
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