Practicing UPSC Previous Year’s questions, be it Prelims or Mains, is a must for clearing the Examination. It provides a clear idea of the trends and types of questions asked in the examination by UPSC.
About Question Bank
In this section, we are providing you with previous year’s questions on UPSC MAINS GS-1 including History, Society, and geography from the year 2013 to 2021.
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- History | Art & Culture
- World History
- Society and aspects
Evaluate the nature of the Bhakti Literature and its contribution to Indian culture. (150 words 10 marks)
Trace the rise and growth of socio-religious reform movements with special reference to Young Bengal and Brahmo Samaj. (150 words 10 marks)
Assess the main administrative issues and socio-cultural problems in the integration process of Indian Princely States. (150 words 10 marks)
To what extent did the role of the moderates prepare a base for the wider freedom movement? Comment. (250 words 15 marks)
Bring out the constructive programmes of Mahatma Gandhi during Non-Cooperation Movement and Civil Disobedience Movement. (250 words 15 marks)
The rock-cut architecture represents one of the most important sources of our knowledge of early Indian art and history. Discuss. (Answer in 150 words)
Pala period is the most significant phase in the history of Buddhism in India. Enumerate. (Answer in 150 words)
Evaluate the policies of Lord Curzon and their long term implications on the national movement. (Answer in 150 words)
Indian philosophy and tradition played a significant role in conceiving and shaping the monuments and art in India. Discuss (Answer in 250 words)
Persian literary sources of medieval India reflect the spirit of the age. Comment? (Answer in 250 words)
Since the decade of 1920‟s, the national movement acquired various ideological strands and thereby expanded its social base. Discuss. (Answer in 250 words)
Though not very useful from the point of view of a connected political history of South India, the Sangam literature portrays the social and economic conditions of its time with remarkable vividness. Comment. (10 marks-200 words.)
a) Discuss the Tandava dance as recorded in the early Indian inscriptions. (5 marks- 100 words.)
b)Chola architecture represents a high watermark in the evolution of temple architecture. Discuss. (5 marks- 100 words.)
To what extent has the urban planning and culture of the Indus Valley Civilization provided inputs to the present day urbanization? Discuss.
Gandhara sculpture owed as much to the Romans as to the Greeks. Explain.
Taxila university was one of the oldest universities of the world with which were associated a number of renowned learned personalities of different disciplines. Its strategic location caused its fame to flourish, but unlike Nalanda, it is not considered as a university in the modern sense. Discuss.
The ancient civilization in Indian sub continent differed from those of Egypt, Mesopotamia and Greece in that its culture and traditions have been preserved without breakdown to the present day. Comment (12.5M)
Mesolithic rock cut architecture of India not only reflects the cultural life of the times but also a fine aesthetic sense comparable to modern painting. Critically evaluate this comment. (12.5M)
Early Buddhist Stupa-art, while depicting folk motifs and narratives, successfully expounds Buddhist ideals. Elucidate.
Krishnadeva Raya, the king of Vijayanagar, was not only an accomplished scholar himself but was a also a great patron of learning and literature. Discuss.
How do you justify the view that the level of excellence of the Gupta numismatic art is not at all noticeable in later times? (150 words)
Safeguarding the Indian art heritage is the need of the moment. Comment (10)
Highlight the Central Asian and Greco Bactrian elements in the Gandhara art. (150 Words 10 Marks)
Sufis and medieval mystic saints failed to modify either the religious ideas and practices or the outward structure of Hindu / Muslim societies to any appreciable extent. Comment.
The Bhakti movement received a remarkable re-orientation with the advent of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. Discuss. (15)
Defying the barriers of age, gender, and religion, the Indian women became the torchbearer during the struggle for freedom in India. Discuss. (10 marks-200 words).
Several foreigners made India their homeland and participated in various movements. Analyze their role in the Indian struggle for freedom. 10 marks-200 words
In many ways, Lord Dalhousie was the founder of modern India. Elaborate. 10 marks-200 words
Critically discuss the objectives of Bhoodan and Gramdan movements initiated by Acharya Vinoba Bhave and their success. 10 marks-200 words.
The third battle of Panipat was fought in 1761. Why were so many empire-shaking battles fought at Panipat?
Examine critically the various facets of economic policies of the British in India from the mid-eighteenth century till independence.
In what ways did the naval mutiny prove to be the last nail in the coffin of British colonial aspirations in India?
What were the major political, economic, and social developments in the world which motivated the anti-colonial struggle in India?
How difficult would have been the achievement of Indian independence without Mahatma Gandhi? Discuss.
Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. B R Ambedkar, despite having divergent approaches and strategies, had a common goal of amelioration of the downtrodden. Elucidate. (12.5M)
It would have been difficult for the Constituent Assembly to complete its historic task of drafting the Constitution for Independent India in just three years, but its experience gained with the Government of India Act, 1935. Discuss. (12.5M)
Explain how the upraising of 1857 constitutes an important watershed in the evolution of British policies towards colonial India.
Discuss the role of women in the freedom struggle especially during the Gandhian phase.
Highlight the differences in the approach of Subhash Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for freedom.
Clarify how mid-eighteenth century India was beset with the spectre of a fragmented polity. (150 words)
Why did the ‘Moderates’ failed to carry conviction with the nation about their proclaimed ideology and political goals by the end of the nineteenth century? (150 words)
Examine how the decline of traditional artisanal industry in colonial India crippled the rural economy. (250 words)
Assess the importance of the accounts of the Chinese and Arab travellers in the reconstruction of the history of India. (10)
Why indentured labour was taken by the British from India to their colonies? have they been able to preserve their cultural identity over there? (15)
The 1857 uprising was the culmination of the recurrent, big and small local rebellions that had occurred in the preceding hundred years of British rule. Elucidate. (150 words 10 marks)
Examine the linkages between the nineteenth century’s ‘Indian Renaissance’ and the emergence of national identity. (150 words 10 marks)
Many voices had strengthened and enriched the nationalist movement during the Gandhian phase. Elaborate. (250 words 15 marks)
Assess the role of British imperial power in complicating the process of transfer of power during the 1940s. (250 words 15 marks)
Write a critical note on the evolution and significance of the slogan “Jai Jawana Jai Kisan”. 10 marks-200 words.
Discuss the contribution of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad to pre-and post independent India. 10 marks-200 words.
Analyse the circumstances that led to Tashkent Agreement in 1966. Discuss the highlights of the agreement. 10 marks-200 words
Critically examine the compulsions which prompted India to play a decisive roles in the emergence of Bangladesh. 10 marks-200 words.
Has the formation of linguistic states strengthened the cause of Indian unity?
What are the two major legal initiatives by the State since Independence addressing discrimination against Scheduled Tribes (STs)? (150 words)
Highlight the importance of the new objectives that got added to the vision of Indian Independence since the twenties of the last century. (250 words)
Throw light on the significance of the thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi in the present times. (10)
Discuss whether the formation of new states in recent times is beneficial or not for the economy of India. (15)
”There arose a serious challenge to the Democratic State System between the two World Wars.” Evaluate the statement. (250 words 15 marks)
“Latecomer” Industrial revolution in Japan involved certain factors that were markedly different from what the west had the experience. 10 marks-200 words.
Africa was chopped into states artificially created by the accident of European competition. Analyze. 10 marks-200 words.
American Revolution was an economic revolt against mercantilism. Substantiate. 10 marks-200 words.
What policy instruments were deployed to contain the great economic depression? 10 marks-200 words.
What were the events that led to the Suez Crisis in 1956? How did it deal a final blow to Britain’s self-image as a world power?
The New Economic Policy – 1921 of Lenin had influenced the policies adopted by India soon after independence. Evaluate.
Why did the industrial revolution first occur in England? Discuss the quality of life of the people there during the industrialization. How does it compare with that in India at present times?
To what extend can Germany be held responsible for causing the two World Wars? Discuss critically.
What problems are germane to the decolonization process in the Malay Peninsula? (150 words)
Explain how the foundations of the modern world were laid by the American and French Revolutions. (250 words 15 marks)
Examine the uniqueness of tribal knowledge system when compared with mainstream knowledge and cultural systems. (150 words 10 marks)
Examine the role of ‘Gig Economy’ in the process of empowerment of women in India. (150 words 10 marks)
Discuss the main objectives of Population Education and point out the measures to achieve them in India in detail. (250 words 15 marks)
What is Cryptocurrency? How does it affect global society? Has it been affecting Indian society also? (250 words 15 marks)
How does Indian society maintain continuity in traditional social values? Enumerate the changes taking place in it. (250 words 15 marks)
Has caste lost its relevance in understanding the multi-cultural Indian society? Elaborate your answer with illustrations. (Answer in 150 words)
COVID-19 pandemic accelerated class inequalities and poverty in India. Comment (Answer in 150 words)
Do you agree that regionalism in India appears to be a consequence of rising cultural assertiveness? Argue. (Answer in 150 words)
Is diversity and pluralism in India under threat due to globalisation? Justify your answer.
Customs and traditions suppress reason leading to obscurantism. Do you agree?
How have digital initiatives in India contributed to the functioning of the education system in the country? Elaborate your answer. (Answer in 250 words, 15 marks)
Discuss the various social problems which originated out of the speedy process of urbanization in India. 10 marks-200 words.
Male membership needs to be encouraged in order to make women’s organization free from gender bias. Comment. 10 marks-200 words.
Critically examine the effects of globalization on the aged population in India. 10 marks-200 words.
Growing feeling of regionalism is an important factor in the generation of demand for a separate state. Discuss. 10 marks-200 words
How does patriarchy impact the position of a middle class working woman in India?
Why do some of the most prosperous regions of India have an adverse sex ratio for women? Give your arguments.
The life cycle of a joint family depends on economic factors rather than social values. Discuss
Discuss the various economic and socio-cultural forces that are driving increasing feminization of agriculture in India.
How do the Indian debates on secularism differ from the debates in the West?
Describe any four cultural elements of diversity in India and rate their relative significance in building a national identity.
Critically examine whether growing population is the cause of poverty OR poverty is the mains cause of population increase in India.
How do you explain the statistics that show that the sex ratio in Tribes in India is more favourable to women than the sex ratio among Scheduled Castes?
Discuss the changes in the trends of labour migration within and outside India in the last four decades.
Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on women in India?
Debate the issue whether and how contemporary movements for assertion of Dalit identity work towards annihilation of caste.
The anti-colonial struggles in West Africa were led by the new elite of Western-educated Africans. Examine.
To what extent globalisation has influenced the core of cultural diversity in India? Explain.
“An essential condition to eradicate poverty is to liberate the poor from the process of deprivation.” Substantiate this statement with suitable examples.
Why are the tribals in India referred to as ‘the Scheduled Tribes’? Indicate the major provisions enshrined in the Constitution of India for their upliftment.
With a brief background of quality of urban life in India, introduce the objectives and strategy of the ‘Smart City Programme.”
What is the basis of regionalism? Is it that unequal distribution of benefits of development on regional basis eventually promotes regionalism? Substantiate your answer.
The spirit of tolerance and love is not only an interesting feature of Indian society from very early times, but it is also playing an important part at the present. Elaborate. (250 words)
The women’s questions arose in modern India as a part of the 19th century social reform movement. What are the major issues and debates concerning women in that period? (250 words)
Distinguish between religiousness/religiosity and communalism giving one example of how the former has got transformed into the latter in independent India. (250 words)
“Caste system is assuming new identities and associational forms. Hence, caste system cannot be eradicated in India.” Comment. (10)
‘Despite implementation of various programmes for eradication of poverty by the government in India, poverty is still existing’. Explain by giving reasons. (10)
How the Indian concept of secularism different from the western model of secularism? Discuss. (10)
‘Women’s movement in India has not addressed the issues of women of lower social strata.’ Substantiate your view. (15)
‘Globalisation is generally said to promote cultural homogenisation but due to this cultural specificities appear to be strengthened in the Indian society.’ Elucidate.
‘Communalism arises either due to power struggle or relative deprivation.’ Argue by giving suitable illustrations. (15)
What makes the Indian society unique in sustaining its culture? Discuss. (150 words 10 marks)
“Empowering women is the key to control population growth.” Discuss. (150 words 10 marks)
What are the challenges to our cultural practices in the name of secularism? (150 words 10 marks)
Do we have cultural pockets of small India all over the nation? Elaborate with examples. (250 words 15 marks)
What are the continued challenges for women in India against time and space?(250 words 15 marks)
Are we losing our local identity for the global identity? Discuss. (250 words 15 marks)
Differentiate the causes of landslides in the Himalayan region and Western Ghats. (150 words 10 marks)
Despite India being one of the countries of the Gondwanaland, its mining industry contributes much less to its Gross Domestic Product(GDP) in percentage. Discuss. (150 words 10 marks)
What are the environmental implications of the reclamation of the water bodies into urban land use? Explain with examples. (150 words 10 marks)
Mention the global occurrence of volcanic eruptions in 2021 and their impact on regional environment. (150 words 10 marks)
Why is India considered as a sub-continent? Elaborate your answer. (150 words 10 marks)
Briefly mention the alignment of major mountain ranges of the world and explain their impact on local weather conditions, with examples. (250 words 15 marks)
How do the melting of the Arctic ice and glaciers of the Antarctic differently affect the weather patterns and human activities on the Earth? Explain. (250 words 15 marks)
Discuss the multi-dimensional implications of uneven distribution of mineral oil in the world. (250 words 15 marks)
What are the main socio-economic implications arising out of the development of IT industries in major cities of India? (250 words 15 marks)
Discuss the geophysical characteristics of the Circum-Pacific zone. (Answer in 150 words)
The process of desertification does not have climatic boundaries. Justify with examples. (Answer in 150 words)
How will the melting of Himalayan glaciers have a far-reaching impact on the water resources of India? (Answer in 150 words)
Account for the present location of Iron and steel industries away from the source of raw material, by giving examples. (Answer in 150 words)
The interlinking of rivers can provide viable solutions to the multidimensional interrelated problems of droughts, floods and interrupted navigation. Critically examine (Answer in 250 words)
Account for the huge flooding of million cities in India including the smart ones like Hyderabad and Pune. Suggest lasting remedial measures. (Answer in 250 words)
India has immense potential for solar energy though there are regional variations in its development. Elaborate
Examine the status of forest resources of India and its resultant impact on climate change.
(a) What do you understand by the theory of continental drift? Discuss the prominent evidences in its support. 5 marks 100 words
(b) The recent cyclone on the east coast of India was called “Phailin”. How are the tropical cyclones named across the world? Elaborate. 5 marks-100 words.
(a)Bring out the causes for the formation of heat islands in the urban habitat of the world. 5 marks 100 words.
(b) What do you understand by the phenomenon of temperature inversion in meteorology? How does it affect the weather and the habitants of the place? 5 marks 100 words.
Major hot deserts in northern hemisphere are located between 20-30 degree north and on the western side of the continents. Why? 10 marks-200 words.
a) Bring out the causes for more frequent landslides in the Himalayas than in the Western Ghats. 5 marks 100 words.
(b) There is no formation of deltas by rivers of the Western Ghat. Why? 5 marks 100 words.
a) Do you agree that there is a growing trend of opening new sugar mills in the Southern states of India? Discuss with justification. 5 marks 100 words.
(b) Analyse the factors for the highly decentralized cotton textile industry in India. 5 marks 100 words
With the growing scarcity of fossil fuels, atomic energy is gaining more and more significance in India. Discuss the availability of raw material required for the generation of atomic energy in India and in the world. 10 marks-200 words.
It is said India has substantial reserves of shale oil and gas, which can feed the needs of the country for a quarter-century. However, tapping the resources doesn’t appear to be high on the agenda. Discuss critically the availability and issues involved. 10 marks-200 words.
Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree?
Why are the world’s fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between the global distribution of fold mountains and the earthquakes and volcanoes.
Explain the formation of thousands of islands in the Indonesian and Philippines archipelagos.
Tropical cyclones are largely confined to South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico. Why?
Bring out the relationship between the shrinking Himalayan glaciers and the symptoms of climate change in the Indian sub-continent.
Whereas the British planters had developed tea gardens all along the Shivaliks and Lesser Himalayas from Assam to Himachal Pradesh, in effect they did not succeed beyond the Darjeeling area. Explain.
Why did the Green Revolution in India virtually by-pass the eastern region despite fertile soil and good availability of water?
Account for the change in the spatial pattern of the Iron and Steel industry in the world.
Critically evaluate the various resources of the oceans which can be harnessed to meet the resource crisis in the world.
How does India see its place in the economic space of rising natural resource rich Africa?
Explain the factors responsible for the origin of ocean currents. How do they influence regional climates, fishing and navigation?
Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata are the three Mega cities of the country but the air pollution is much more serious probelm in Delhi as compared to the other two. Why is this so?
India is well endowed with fresh water resources. Critically examine why it still suffers from water scarcity.
The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are reaching the limits of econological carrying capacity due to tourism. Critically evaluate.
How far do you agree that the behaviour of the Indian monsoon has been changing due to humanizing landscape? Discuss.
What are the economic significances of the discovery of oil in the Arctic Sea and its possible environmental consequences?
Discuss the concept of air mass and explain its role in macro-climatic changes.
“The Himalayas are highly prone to landslides. “Discuss the causes and suggest suitable measures of mitigation.
The effective management of land and water resources will drastically reduce the human miseries. Explain.
In what way micro-watershed development projects help in water conservation in drought-prone and semi-arid regions of India?
How does the Juno Mission of NASA help to understand the origin and evolution of the Earth? (150 words)
“Inspite of adverse environmental impact, coal mining is still inevitable for development”. Discuss (150 words)
Mention the advantages of the cultivation of pulses because of which the year 2016 was declared as the International Year of Pulses by United Nations. (150 words)
How does the cryosphere affect global climate? (150 words)
Account for variations in oceanic salinity and discuss its multi-dimensional effects. (250 words)
Petroleum refineries are not necessarily located nearer to crude oil producing areas, particularly in many of the developing countries. Explain its implications. (250 words)
What characteristics can be assigned to monsoon climate that succeeds in feeding more than 50 percent of the world population residing in Monsoon Asia? (250 words)
“The growth of cities as I.T. hubs has opened up new avenues of employment, but has also created new problems”. Substantiate this statement with examples (250 words)
Why is Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) needed? How does it help in navigation? (10 )
Why is India taking keen interest in the Arctic region? (10)
Define mantle plume and explain its role in plate tectonics. (10)
What are the consequences of spreading of ‘Dead Zones’ on marine ecosystem? (10)
“The ideal solution of depleting ground water resources in India is water harvesting system.” How can it be made effective in urban areas? (15)
Defining blue revolution, explain the problems and strategies for pisciculture development in India. (15)
What is the significance of Industrial Corridors in India? Identifying industrial corridors, explain their main characteristics. (15)
Mention core strategies for the transformation of aspirational districts in India and explain the nature of convergence, collaboration and competition for its success. (15)
Assess the impact of global warming on the coral life system with examples. (150 words 10 marks)
Discuss the causes of depletion of mangroves and explain their importance in maintaining coastal ecology. (150 words 10 marks)
Can the strategy of regional resource-based manufacturing help in promoting employment in India? (150 words 10 marks)
Discuss the factors for localisation of agro-based food processing industries of North-West India. (150 words 10 marks)
What is water stress? How and why does it differ regionally in India? (250 words 15 marks)
How can the mountain ecosystem be restored from the negative impact of development initiatives and tourism? (250 words 15 marks)
How is efficient and affordable urban mass transport key to the rapid economic development in India? (250 words 15 marks)
How do ocean currents and water masses differ in their impacts on marine life and coastal environment? Give suitable examples. (250 words 15 marks)