UPSC Syllabus | IAS Syllabus

Welcome to ForumIAS, by reading this article you will know completely about the UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) Civil Services/IAS Examination  UPSC syllabus and pattern.

Table of Content

  1. UPSC Prelims Syllabus 
  2. UPSC Mains Syllabus
  3. UPSC optional subjects

The Civil Services Examination is considered one of the toughest and the most elite examinations in India and the world too. The amount of preparation and the dedicated time involved in the process of the UPSC Exam is much high compare to other competitive exams and the slightest miscalculation in the process might result in the wastage of one year from the life of a candidate. 

The nature of UPSC Syllabus for IAS examination is open-ended and very dynamic. Everyone just knows about the subjects that UPSC intends, aspirants should focus upon. UPSC syllabus has been framed in a way that anything from the static subjective books or the daily current affairs can be asked in the examination and no one can dispute the questions asked.

For example; UPSC in the syllabus, has specified the contents related to political and constitutional aspects of the country. But it doesn’t mean that aspirants do not require to read about the laws linked to IPC or Cr.PC appearing the news. Same applies to economy i.e., everything happening about the Indian economy and anything globally which impacts Indian economy in any way, would become the UPSC syllabus.    

How questions are being asked from UPSC Syllabus?

  • Initially, the questions are more factual from the UPSC Syllabus, and the focus of the question would be on What/When/Where type of questions. But UPSC Examination evolved and changed its focus towards analytical questions like Why/Why not/ How/How come etc.
  • Somewhat equatorial distribution of UPSC Syllabus– In the recent UPSC IAS exam focused on all aspects of subjects Instead of giving more weightage on a few subjects from the UPSC Syllabus. So, an aspirant has to study all subjects mentioned in UPSC Syllabus with equal importance and should not rely on any few subjects.
  • Reducing the possibilities in options – UPSC CSE has picked a greater number of single-dimensional questions having only one clear answer among the 4 options given.

For ex, A question in 2020 prelims – “In India, the term “Public Key Infrastructure” is used in the context of

  1. a) Digital security infrastructure
  2. b) Food security infrastructure
  3. c) Health care and education infrastructure
  4. d) Telecommunication and transportation infrastructure

In this type of question, either candidate can mark the correct answer or left the question altogether.

  • Though the CSAT exam is a qualifying paper, the questions asked in the past few years made it, only the prepared aspirants get through the exam. Few aspirants cleared GS-I but failed to clear the Prelims examination just because they couldn’t clear the CSAT exam.
  • In the UPSC Mains Exam, the questions are more situation oriented and analytical, testing the mental ability of the candidate as per the UPSC syllabus and also the need for their everyday job.
  • The UPSC Mains questions nowadays have created a level playing field for candidates from various educational backgrounds. Thus, it increased the competitiveness of the exam.
  • Practice needed to be perfect: Each question asks for a variety of demands such as what has been done so far, what are the challenges in present, and how to overcome the challenges. All in one question. So, only the person who is specifically focussed on all aspects of the UPSC syllabus and involved in regular answer writing practice can complete the question in time.
  • In Simple terms, the questions are dynamic in nature. An aspirant has to focus both on static and current sections of the UPSC Syllabus together to get through UPSC/IAS examination.
How to perfect your preparation?

A quote by Abraham Lincoln is the perfect one for this question.

“Give me six hours to chop down a tree and I will spend the first four sharpening the axe”.

So, the above saying by Lincoln, an aspirant need to know the complete UPSC Syllabus inside out to taste the success. UPSC Syllabus has to be in his/her head like a mind map. This will help aspirants in several ways;

  • Helps in avoid reading unnecessary topics and wasting time in the process
  • Can segregate the topic while reading itself
  • Keeps an aspirant align towards the expectation of UPSC Syllabus
  • Helps in search for quest regarding the topic s/he reads
  • Helps in interlinking of topics so that aspirant can wider his thought and vision.


The UPSC Exam (Civil Service Exam) is a common one for many elite posts such as IAS, IPS, IFS, etc. So, every person will get the cadre according to the marks s/he obtain in the UPSC Exam. Now coming to the UPSC Exam, it was conducted in three stages.

  1. UPSC Civil Services (Preliminary) Exam – Objective pattern
  2. UPSC Civil Services (Mains) Exam – Descriptive pattern
  3. Personal Interview
Stage 1: UPSC Civil Services (Preliminary) Exam

SUBJECT

MARKS

MARKS PER QUESTION

DURATION

 

PAPER – I GENERAL STUDIES

200

2 MARKS (100 QUESTIONS)

2 HOURS

PAPER – II CIVIL SERVICE APTITUDE TEST (CSAT)

200

2.5 MARKS (80 QUESTIONS)

2 HOURS

There are two papers at the preliminary stage of the UPSC IAS exam.
  • One conducted in the morning (General studies (GS) paper-I)
  • The other in the afternoon (Civil Service Aptitude Test (CSAT)).
  • Both the exams have 1/3rd deduction for marking wrong answers (0.666 in GS and 0.83 in CSAT) and there is no deduction if the question is not answered (i.e. left out)
  • Both the exam marks are only for qualifying for Mains Stage and marks are not included in the final mark list.
upsc prelims syllabus – I General Studies

The General studies part of the exam will test the General Awareness of a candidate in a various domain such as History, Polity, Economy, Geography, Environment, Science and Technology, International Relations and Current events.

  • Current events of national and international importance.
  • History of India and Indian National Movement.
  • Indian and World Geography-Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
  • Indian Polity and Governance -Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
  • Economic and Social Development-Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
  • General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialization.
  • General Science.
   UPSC Prelims Syllabus for Paper – II CSAT
  • Comprehension;
  • Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
  • Logical reasoning and analytical ability;
  • Decision making and problem solving;
  • General mental ability;
  • Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level),
  • Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency etc. — Class X level);
Stage 2: UPSC Civil Services (Mains) Exam:

The successful candidates from the Preliminary exam are allowed to write the Mains exam. The Mains exam of the UPSC will test the student’s in-depth knowledge with descriptive type answers. The exams will be conducted for 3 hours so the candidate not only has to provide his/her understanding regarding the question in a time-bound manner but also has to be precise about what s/he writes.

There are 9 papers in the UPSC Mains Exam:

PAPER

TOPIC

MARKS

Paper – A

Indian Language (Any of the language mentioned in 8th schedule)

300

Paper – B

English

300

Paper – I

Essay

250

Paper – II

General Studies – I (Indian Heritage & Culture, History & Geography of the World & Society)

250

Paper – III

 

General Studies – II (Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice & International Relations)

250

Paper – IV

 

General Studies – III (Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Security & Disaster Management)

250

Paper – V

 

General Studies – IV (Ethics, Integrity & Aptitude)

250

 

Paper – VI

 

Optional Subject – Paper I

250

 

Paper – VII

 

Optional Subject – Paper II

250

 

Few important points to consider

  • Candidates can write Paper I to Paper VII in English or any of the languages mentioned in 8th schedule of Indian Constitution.
  • Paper I to Paper VII will be taken for evaluation only if the candidate obtained 25% of the marks in Paper A and Paper B.
  • There are 48 Optional Subjects in the UPSC exam. Candidate has to select any one subject among them. Two papers (Paper VI and Paper VII) will be conducted from that for 250 marks each.

Languages mentioned in 8th Schedule of Indian Constitution:

(1) Assamese, (2) Bengali, (3) Gujarati, (4) Hindi, (5) Kannada, (6) Kashmiri, (7) Konkani, (8) Malayalam, (9) Manipuri, (10) Marathi, (11) Nepali, (12) Oriya, (13) Punjabi, (14) Sanskrit, (15) Sindhi, (16) Tamil, (17) Telugu, (18) Urdu (19) Bodo, (20) Santhali, (21) Maithili and (22) Dogri.

UPSC Mains Syllabus :
UPSC Syllabus for Optional Subjects:

The UPSC Exam syllabus includes 48 optional subjects covering wide horizon of subjects including Literature, Arts, Science, Agriculture, Etc. Candidates have to select one optional subject from IAS syllabus and there will be two papers for 500 marks (250 marks each).

Candidates need to choose any one of the below mentioned subjects as their optional.

Serial Number

List of optional subjects

Detailed UPSC Syllabus

1

 

Agriculture

UPSC Syllabus for Agriculture

2

Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science

UPSC Syllabus for Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science

3

Anthropology

UPSC Syllabus for Anthropology

4

Botany

UPSC Syllabus for Botany

5

Chemistry

UPSC Syllabus for Chemistry

6

Civil Engineering

UPSC Syllabus for Civil Engineering

7

Commerce & Accountancy

UPSC Syllabus for Commerce & Accountancy

8

Economics

UPSC Syllabus for Economics

9

Electrical Engineering

UPSC Syllabus for Electrical Engineering

10

Geography

UPSC Syllabus for Geography

11

Geology

UPSC Syllabus for Geology

12

History

UPSC Syllabus for History

13

Law

UPSC Syllabus for Law

14

Management

UPSC Syllabus for Management

15

Mathematics

UPSC Syllabus for Mathematics

16

Mechanical Engineering

UPSC Syllabus for Mechanical Engineering

17

Medical Science

UPSC Syllabus for Medical Science

18

Philosophy

UPSC Syllabus for Philosophy

19

Physics

UPSC Syllabus for Physics

20

Political Science & International Relations

UPSC Syllabus for Political Science & International Relations

21

Psychology

UPSC Syllabus for Psychology

22

Public Administration

UPSC Syllabus for Public Administration

23

Sociology

UPSC Syllabus for Sociology

24

Statistics

UPSC Syllabus for Statistics

25

Zoology

UPSC Syllabus for Zoology

Serial Number

List of Literature optional subjects

Detailed UPSC Syllabus

1

Assamese

UPSC Syllabus for Assamese

2

Bengali

UPSC Syllabus for Bengali

3

Bodo

UPSC Syllabus for Bodo

4

Dogri

UPSC Syllabus for Dogri

5

Gujarati

UPSC Syllabus for Gujarati

6

Hindi

UPSC Syllabus for Hindi

7

Kannada

UPSC Syllabus for Kannada

8

Kashmiri

UPSC Syllabus for Kashmiri

9

Konkani

UPSC Syllabus for Konkani

10

Maithili

UPSC Syllabus for Maithili

11

Malayalam

UPSC Syllabus for Malayalam

12

Manipuri

UPSC Syllabus for Manipuri

13

Marathi

UPSC Syllabus for Marathi

14

Nepali

UPSC Syllabus for Nepali

15

Oriya

UPSC Syllabus for Oriya

16

Punjabi

UPSC Syllabus for Punjabi

17

Sanskrit

UPSC Syllabus for Sanskrit

18

Santhali

UPSC Syllabus for Santhali

19

Sindhi

UPSC Syllabus for Sindhi

20

Tamil

UPSC Syllabus for Tamil

21

Telugu

UPSC Syllabus for Telugu

22

Urdu

UPSC Syllabus for Urdu

23

English

UPSC Syllabus for English

Stage 3: UPSC IAS Interview/ UPSC Personality Test

Candidates who cleared the UPSC Mains Exams will be notified and called for the UPSC Personality test.

The personality test for UPSC Exam will have 275 marks interviewed by a board appointed by UPSC. The mental qualities, analytical abilities and personal suitability of candidates will be assessed at this stage.

Final merit list:

The Final merit list will be prepared based on the UPSC Mains Exam (1750 Marks) and Personality test (275 Marks) for the total of 2025 marks. Based on the marks obtained by the candidates their cadres will be allotted.

Optionals Syllabus Main menu

UPSC Optionals Syllabus 


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Public Administration optional Syllabus (Download pdf)

PAPER-I

Administration Theory  

1. Introduction : Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration, Wilson’s vision of Public Administration, Evolution of the discipline and its present status. New Public Administration, Public Choice approach; Challenges of liberalization, Privatisation, Globalisation; Good Governance: concept and application; New Public Management.

2. Administrative Thought : Scientific Management and Scientific Management movement; Classical Theory; Weber’s bureaucratic model its critique and post-Weberian Developments; Dynamic Administration (Mary Parker Follett); Human Relations School (Elton Mayo and others); Functions of the Executive (C.I. Barnard); Simon’s decision-making theory; Participative Man-agement (R. Likert, C. Argyris, D. McGregor.)

3. Administrative Behaviour : Process and techniques of decision-making; Communication; Morale; Motivation Theories content, process and contemporary; Theories of Leadership: Traditional and Mo-dem:

4. Organisations : Theories systems, contingency; Structure and forms: Ministries and Departments, Corporations, Companies; Boards and Commissions; Ad hoc, and advisory bodies; Headquarters and Field relationships; Regulatory Authorities; Public- Private Partnerships.

5. Accountability and Control : Concepts of accountability and control; Legislative, Executive and judicial control over administration; Citizen and Administration; Role of media, interest groups, voluntary or-ganizations; Civil society; Citizen’s Charters; Right to Information; Social audit.

6. Administrative Law : Meaning, scope and significance; Dicey on Administrative law; Delegated legislation; Administrative Tri-bunals.

7. Comparative Public Administration : Historical and sociological factors affecting administrative systems; Administration and politics in different countries; Current status of Comparative Public Administration; Ecology and administration; Riggsian models and their critique.

8. Development Dynamics : Concept of development; Changing profile of development administration; ‘Anti-development thesis’; Bureaucracy and development; Strong state versus the market debate; Impact of liberalisation on administration in developing countries; Women and development the self-help group movement.

9. Personnel Administration : Importance of human resource development; Recruitment, training, career advancement, position classification, discipline, performance appraisal, promotion, pray and service conditions; employer-employee relations, grievance redressal mechanism; Code of conduct; Administrative ethics.

10. Public Policy : Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualisation, planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policy formulation.

11. Techniques of Administrative Improvement : Organisation and methods, Work study and work man-agement; e-governance and information technology; Man-agement aid tools like network analysis, MIS, PERT, CPM.

12. Financial Administration : Monetary and fiscal policies: Public borrowings and public debt Budgets types and forms; Budgetary process; Financial accountability; Accounts and audit.

PAPER-II

Indian Administration

1. Evolution of Indian Administration : Kautilya Arthashastra; Mughal administration; Legacy of British rule in politics and administration Indianization of Public services, revenue administration, district Administration, local self Government. .

2. Philosophical and Constitutional framework of Government : Salient features and value premises; Constitutionalism; Political culture; Bureaucracy and democracy; Bureaucracy and development.

3. Public Sector Undertakings : Public sector in modern India; Forms of Public Sector Undertakings; Problems of autonomy, accountability and con-trol; Impact of liberalization and privatization.

4. Union Government and Administration : Executive, Parliament, Judiciary-structure, functions, work processes; Recent trends; Intra-governmental relations; Cabinet Secretariat; Prime Minister’s Office; Central Secretariat; Ministries and Departments; Boards; Commissions; Attached offices; Field organizations.

5. Plans and Priorities : Machinery of planning; Role, composition and functions of the Planning Commission and the National Development Council; ‘Indicative’ planning; Process of plan formulation at Union and State levels; Constitutional Amendments (1992) and decentralized planning for economic development and social justice.

6. State Government and Administration : Union-State administrative, legislative and financial relations; Role of the Finance Commission; Governor; Chief Minister; Council of Ministers; Chief Secretary; State Secretariat; Directorates.

7. District Administration since Independence : Changing role of the Collector; Union-State-local relations; Imperatives of development management and law and order administration; District administration and democratic decentralization.

8. Civil Services : Constitutional position; Structure, recruitment, training and capacity building; Good governance initiatives; Code of conduct and discipline; Staff associations; Political rights; Grievance redressal mechanism; Civil service neutrality; Civil service activism.

9. Financial Management : Budget as a political instrument; Parliamentary control of public expenditure; Role of finance ministry in monetary and fiscal area; Accounting techniques; Audit; Role of Controller General of Accounts and Comptroller and Auditor General of India.

10. Administrative Reforms since Independence : Major concerns; Important Committees and Commissions; Reforms in financial management and human resource development; Problems of implementation.

11. Rural Development : Institutions and agencies since Independence; Rural development programmes: foci and strategies; Decentralization and Panchayati Raj; 73rd Constitutional amendment.

12. Urban Local Government : Municipal governance: main features, structures, finance and problem areas; 74th Constitutional Amendment; Global-local debate; New localism; Development dynamics, politics and administration with special reference to city management.

13. Law and Order Administration: British legacy; National Police Commission; Investigative agencies; Role of Central and State Agencies including para military forces in maintenance of law and order and countering insurgency and terrorism; Criminalisation of politics and administration; Police-public relations; Reforms in Police.

14. Significant issues in Indian Administration: Values in public service; Regulatory Commissions; National Human Rights Commission; Problems of administration in coalition regimes; Citizen administration interface; Corruption and administration; Disaster management.

Geography optional Syllabus (Download pdf)
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PAPER I

PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY

Physical Geography :

1. Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Land scape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.

2. Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.

3. Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.

4. Biogeography : Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry, agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

5. Environmental Geography : Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography :

1. Perspectives in  Human Geography : Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development indix.

2. Economic Geography : World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.

3. Population and Settlement Geography : Growth and distribution of world population; Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.

4. Regional Planning : Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies; Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

5. Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography : System analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

PAPER II

GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

1. Physical Setting : Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.

2. Resources : Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

3. Agriculture : Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agro-ecological regions.

4. Industry : Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and ago-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector underkings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.

5. Transport, Communication and Trade : Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline net works and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.

6. Cultural Setting : Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, interaregional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

7. Settlements : Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and asssociated problems; Town planning; Problems of urbanisation and remedies.

8. Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

9. Political Aspects : Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International boundary of India and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

10. Contemporary Issues : Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

NOTE : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.

History  optional Syllabus- (Download pdf)
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PAPER I

1. Sources Archaeological sources : Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments. Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. Pre-history and Proto-history : Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization : Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. Megalithic Cultures : Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5. Aryans and Vedic Period : Expansions of Aryans in India : Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas : Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas. Iranian and Mecedonian invasions and their impact.

7. Mauryan Empire : Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature. Disintegration of the empire; sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas) : Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India: Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, Economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas: Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11. Regional States during Gupta Era: The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakit movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chaluky as of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History: Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750-1200: —Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs. —The Cholas: administration, village economy and society “Indian Feudalism”. —Agrarian economy and urban settlements. —Trade and commerce. —Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order. —Condition of women. —Indian science and technology.

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200: —Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa. —Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism. —Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan’s Rajtarangini, Alberuni’s India . —Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting.

15. The Thirteenth Century: —Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions – factors behind Ghurian success. —Economic, Social and cultural consequences. —Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans. —Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.

16. The Fourteenth Century: —“The Khalji Revolution”. —Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measure. —Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq. —Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta’s account.

17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries: —Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement. —Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literaute in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture. —Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce.

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century-Political Developments and Economy: —Rise of Provincial Dynasties : Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat. —Malwa, Bahmanids. —The Vijayanagara Empire. —Lodis. —Mughal Empire, first phase : Babur, Humayun. —The Sur Empire : Sher Shah’s administration. —Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti and Sufi Movements.

19. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century- Society and culture: —Regional cultures specificities. —Literary traditions. —Provincial architectural. —Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

20. Akbar: —Conquests and consolidation of empire. —Establishment of jagir and mansab systems. —Rajput policy. —Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy. —Court patronage of art and technology.

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century: —Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb. —The Empire and the Zamindars. —Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb. —Nature of the Mughal State. —Late Seventeenth Century crisis and the revolts. —The Ahom kingdom. —Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries: —Population Agricultural and craft production. —Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution. —Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance and credit systems. —Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women. —Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth

23. Culture during Mughal Empire: —Persian histories and other literature —Hindi and religious literatures. —Mughal architecture. —Mughal painting. —Provincial architecture and painting. —Classical music. —Science and technology.

24. The Eighteenth Century: —Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire. —The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh. —Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas. —The Maratha fiscal and financial system. —Emergence of Afghan power Battle of Panipat, 1761. —State of, political, cultural and economic, on eve of the British conquest.

PAPER-II

1. European Penetration into India: The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal-The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2. British Expansion in India: Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj: The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct contol; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt’s India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule: (a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society. (b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments: The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of Science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6. Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and OtherAreas: Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule: Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 —Origin, character, casuses of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post- 1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi’s popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.

10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.

11. Other strands in the National Movement. The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside India. The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru’s Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements. 15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of Science.

16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas: (i) Major Ideas of Enlightenment : Kant, Rousseau. (ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies. (iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics : (i) European States System (ii) American Revolution and the Constitution (iii) French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815 (iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery. (v) British Democratic politics, 1815-1850 : Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18. Industrialization : (i) English Industrial Revolution : Causes and Impact on Society. (ii) Industrialization in other countries : USA, Germany, Russia, Japan. (iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

19. Nation-State System : (i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century. (ii) Nationalism : State-building in Germany and Italy. (iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the World.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism : (i) South and South-East Asia. (ii) Latin America and South Africa. (iii) Australia. (iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution : (i) 19th Century European revolutions. (ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921. (iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany. (iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949.

22. World Wars : (i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars : Societal implications. (ii) World War I : Causes and Consequences. (iii) World War II : Causes and Consequences.

23. The World after World War II: (i) Emergence of Two power blocs. (ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment (iii) UNO and the global disputes.

24. Liberation from Colonial Rule : (i) Latin America-Bolivar. (ii) Arab World-Egypt. (iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy. (iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam.

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment : (i) Factors constraining Development ; Latin America, Africa.

26. Unification of Europe : (i) Post War Foundations ; NATO and European Community. (ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community (iii) European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World : (i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union, 1985-1991. (ii) Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001. (iii) End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.

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PAPER-I

1.1 Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology.

1.2 Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences, behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences, Medical Sciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.

1.3 Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance :

(a) Social-cultural Anthropology.

(b) Biological Anthropology.

(c) Archaeological Anthropology.

(d) Linguistic Anthropology.

 1.4 Human Evolution and emergence of Man :

(a) Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.

(b) Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).

(c) Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).

1.5 Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.

1.6 Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following :

(a) Plio-preleistocene hominids in South and East Africa—Australopithecines.

(b) Homo erectus : Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus (heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis.

(c) Neanderthal man—La-chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).

(d) Rhodesian man.

(e) Homo saoiens—Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.

1.7 The biological basis of Life : The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.

1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology : Relative and Absolute Dating methods.

(b) Cultural Evolution—Broad Outlines of Prehistoric cultures :

(i) Paleolithic (ii) Mesolithic (iii) Neolithic (iv) Chalcolithic (v) Copper-Bronze Age (vi) Iron Age

2.1 The Nature of Culture : The concept and Characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-a-vis cultural Relativism.

2.2 The Nature of Society : Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institution; Social groups; and Social stratification.

2.3 Marriage : Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Type of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).

2.4 Family : Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.

2.5 Kinship : Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation;Decent and Alliance.

3. Economic Organization : Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.

4. Political Organization and Social Control : Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple Societies.

5. Religion : Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant Societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico-religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).

6. Anthropological theories :

(a) Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)

 (b) Historical particularism (Boas) Diffusionism (British, German and American)

(c) Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural— Functionalism (Radcliffe-Brown)

(d) Structuralism (L’evi-Strauss and E. Leach)

(e) Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora-du Bois)

(f) Neo—evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)

(g) Cultural materialism (Harris)

(h) Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)

(i) Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)

(j) Post-modernism in anthropology.

7. Culture, Language and Communication : Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social contex of language use.

 8. Research methods in Anthropology

(a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology

(b) Distinction between technique, method and methodology

 (c) Tools of data collection : observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.

(d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

9.1 Human Genetics : Methods and Application : Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.

9.2 Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.

9.3 Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.

9.4 Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.

 (a) Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).

(b) Sex chromosomal aberration- Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.

(c) Autosomal aberrations- Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.

(d) Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.

9.5 Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.

9.6 Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker : ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-ecomomic groups.

9.7 Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology : Bio-cultural Adaptations—Genetic and Non-genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.

9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology : Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases, Nutritional deficiency related diseases.

10. Concept of human growth and Development : Stages of growth—pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence. —Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental, biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic. —Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations —Biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.

11.2 Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.

11.3 Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.

12. Applications of Anthropology : Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthropology in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthropology, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics—Paternity diagnosis, genetic counselling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.

PAPER-II

1.1 Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization— Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Pre-Harappan, Harappan and post- Harappan cultures. Contributions of the tribal cultures to Indian civilization.

1.2 Palaeo—Anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).

 1.3. Ethno-archaeology in India: The concept of ethno-archaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.

2. Demographic profile of India—Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population—factors influencing its structure and growth.

3.1 The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system—Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.

3.2 Caste system in India— Structure and characteristics Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system, Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system, Jajmani system. Tribe-case continuum.

3.3 Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.

3.4. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity of Indian society.

4. Emergence, growth and development in India— Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.

5.1 Indian Village—Significane of village study in India; Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.

5.2 Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.

5.3 Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and great traditions; Panchayati Raj and social change; Media and Social change.

6.1 Tribal situation in India—Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution.

6.2 Problems of the tribal Communities—Land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, under-employment, health and nutrition.

6.3 Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanisation and industrialization on tribal populations.

7.1 Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.

7.2 Social change and contemporary tribal societies : Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.

7.3 The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism. Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.

8.1 Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.

8.2 Tribe and nation state—a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries. 9.1 History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.

9.2 Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.

9.3 Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political movements.

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PAPER-I

HISTORY AND PROBLEMS OF PHILOSOPHY

1. Plato and Aristotle : Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.

2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz); Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.

3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume) : Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.

4. Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God.

5. Hegel : Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism.

6. Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein : Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Sying and Showing.

7. Logical Positivism : Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.

8. Later Wittgenstein : Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language.

9. Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.

10. Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sarte, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the-world and Temporality.

11. Quine and Strawson : Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.

12. Carvaka : Theory of Knowlegde; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.

13. Jainism : Theory of Reality; Saptabhanginaya; Bondage and Liberation.

14. Schools of Buddhism : Prat Ityasamutpada; Ksanikavada, Nairatmyavada.

15. Nyaya—Vaiesesika : Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramana; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.

16. Samkhya; Prakrit; Purusa; Causation; Liberation.

17. Yoga; Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.

18. Mimamsa: Theory of Knowlegde.

19. Schools of Vedanta : Brahman; Isvara; Atman; Jiva; Jagat; Maya; Avida; Adhyasa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda.

20. Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

PAPER-II

SOCIO-POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

1. Social and Political ldeals : Equality, Justice, Liberty.

2. Sovereignty : Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.

3. Individual and State : Rights; Duties and Accountability.

4. Forms of Government : Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.

5. Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism.

6. Humanism; Secularism; Multi-culturalism.

7. Crime and Punishment : Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.

8. Development and Social Progress.

9. Gender Discrimination : Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowerment.

10. Caste Discrimination : Gandhi and Ambedkar.

Philosophy of Religion

1. Notions of God : Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).

2. Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).

3. Problem of Evil.

4. Soul : Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.

 5. Reason, Revelation and Faith.

6. Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).

7. Religion without God.

8. Religion and Morality.

9. Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.

10. Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non-cognitive.

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PAPER- I

POLITICAL THEORY AND INDIAN POLITICS :

1. Political Theory: meaning and approaches.

2. Theories of state : Liberal, Neo-liberal, Marxist, Pluiralist, post-colonial and Feminist.

3. Justice : Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques.

4. Equality : Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.

5. Rights : Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; Concept of Human Rights.

6. Democracy : Classical and contemporary theories; different models of democracy—representative, participatory and deliberative.

7. Concept of power : hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.

8. Political Ideologies : Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.

9. Indian Political Thought: Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist Traditions; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Sri Aurobindo, M. K. Gandhi, B. R. Ambedkar, M. N. Roy.

10. Western Political Thought : Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John S. Mill, Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt.

INDIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

1. Indian Nationalism :

(a) Political Strategies of India’s Freedom Struggle : Constitutionalism to mass Satyagraha, Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience; Militant and Revolutionary Movements, Peasant and Workers Movements.

(b) Perspectives on Indian National Movement; Liberal, Socialist and Marxist; Radical Humanist and Dalit.

2. Making of the Indian Constitution : Legacies of the British rule; different social and political perspectives.

3. Salient Features of the Indian Constitution : The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles; Parliamentary System and Amendment Procedures; Judicial Review and Basic Structure doctrine.

4. (a) Principal Organs of the Union Government : Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court.

(b) Principal Organs of the State Government : Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and High Courts.

5. Grassroots Democracy : Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; Significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments; Grassroot movements.

6. Statutory Institutions/Commissions : Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General, Finance Commission, Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women; National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Backward Classes Commission.

7. Federalism : Constitutional provisions; changing nature of centre-state relations; integrationist tendencies and regional aspirations; inter-state disputes.

8. Planning and Economic development : Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; Role of planning and public sector; Green Revolution, land reforms and agrarian relations; liberalization and economic reforms.

9. Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.

10. Party System : National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties; Patterns of coalition politics; Pressure groups, trends in electoral behaviour; changing socio-economic profile of Legislators.

11. Social Movement : Civil liberties and human rights movements; women’s movements; environmentalist movements.

PAPER-II

COMPARATIVE POLITICS AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS COMPARATIVE POLITICAL ANALYSIS AND INTERNATIONAL POLITICS :

1. Comparative Politics : Nature and major approaches; Political economy and political sociology perspectives; Limitations of the comparative method.

2. State in Comparative Perspective : Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies, and advanced industrial and developing societies.

3. Politics of Representation and Participation : Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.

4. Globalisation : Responses from developed and developing societies.

5. Approaches to the Study of International Relations : Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.

6. Key Concepts in International Relations : National interest, security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation.

7. Changing International Political Order :

(a) Rise of super powers; Strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and cold war; Nuclear threat;

(b) Non-aligned Movement : Aims and achievements.

(c) Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; Relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.

8. Evolution of the International Economic System : From Brettonwoods to WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.

9. United Nations : Envisaged role and actual record; Specialized UN agencies—aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.

10. Regionalisation of World Politics : EU, ASEAN, APEC, AARC, NAFTA. 11. Contemporary Global Concerns : Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice terrorism, nuclear proliferation.

India and the World

1. Indian Foreign Policy : Determinants of foreign policy; the institutions of policy-making; Continuity and change.

2. India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement Different phases; Current role.

3. India and South Asia :

(a) Regional Co-operation : SAARC-past performance and future prospects.

(b) South Asia as a Free Trade Area.

(c) India’s “Look East” policy.

(d) Impediments to regional co-operation : River water disputes; illegal cross border migration; Ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; Border disputes.

4. India and the Global South : Relations with Africa and Latin America; Leadership role in the demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.

5. India and the Global Centres of Power : USA, EU, Japan, China and Russia.

6. India and the UN System: Role in UN Peace-keeping; Demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.

7. India and the Nuclear Question : Changing perceptions and policy. 8. Recent developments in Indian Foreign Policy : India’s position on the recent crises in Afghanistan, Iraq and West Asia, growing relations with US and Isreal; Vision of a new world order.

Sociology  optional Syllabus- (Download pdf)
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PAPER– I

FUNDAMENTALS OF SOCIOLOGY

1. Sociology – The Discipline:

(a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology.

(b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.

(c) Sociology and common sense.

2. Sociology as Science:

(a) Science, scientific method and critique.

(b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology.

(c) Positivism and its critique.

(d) Fact value and objectivity.

(e) Non-positivist methodologies.

3. Research Methods and Analysis:

(a) Qualitative and quantitative methods.

(b) Techniques of data collection.

(c ) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.

4. Sociological Thinkers:

(a) Karl Marx – Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.

(b) Emile Durkhteim – Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.

(c) Max Weber – Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.

(d) Talcolt Parsons – Social system, pattern variables.

(e) Robert K. Merton – Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.

(f) Mead – Self and identity.

5. Stratification and Mobility :

(a) Concepts – equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.

(b) Theories of social stratification – Structural func tionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.

(c) Dimensions – Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.

(d) Social mobility – open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.

6. Works and Economic Life :

(a) Social organization of work in different types of society – slave society, feudal society, industrial capitalist society.

(b) Formal and informal organization of work.

(c) Labour and society.

7. Politics and Society:

(a) Sociological theories of power.

(b) Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups and political parties.

(c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.

(d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.

8. Religion and Society :

(a) Sociological theories of religion.

(b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.

(c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamentalism.

9. Systems of Kinship:

(a) Family, household, marriage.

(b) Types and forms of family.

(c) Lineage and descent.

(d) Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.

(e) Contemporary trends.

10. Social Change in Modern Society :

(a) Sociological theories of social change.

(b) Development and dependency.

(c) Agents of social change.

(d) Education and social change.

(e) Science, technology and social change.

PAPER–II

INDIAN SOCIETY : STRUCTURE AND CHANGE

A. Introducing Indian Society :

(i) Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society :

(a) Indology (G.S. Ghure).

(b) Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas).

(c) Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).

(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :

(a) Social background of Indian nationalism.

(b) Modernization of Indian tradition.

(c) Protests and movements during the colonial period.

(d) Social reforms.

 B. Social Structure:

 (i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:

(a) The idea of Indian village and village studies.

(b) Agrarian social structure— evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.

(ii) Caste System:

(a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S. Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.

(b) Features of caste system.

(c) Untouchability-forms and perspectives

(iii) Tribal Communities in India:

(a) Definitional problems.

(b) Geographical spread.

(c) Colonial policies and tribes.

(d) Issues of integration and autonomy.

(iv) Social Classes in India:

(a) Agrarian class structure.

(b) Industrial class structure.

(c) Middle classes in India.

(v) Systems of Kinship in India:

(a) Lineage and descent in India.

(b) Types of kinship systems.

(c) Family and marriage in India.

(d) Household dimensions of the family.

(e) Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.

(vi) Religion and Society :

(a) Religious communities in India.

(b) Problems of religious minorities.

C. Social Changes in India:

(i) Visions of Social Change in India:

(a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy.

(b) Constitution, law and social change.

(c) Education and social change.

(ii) Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India:

(a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.

(b) Green revolution and social change.

(c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.

(d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.

(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:

(a) Evolution of modern industry in India.

(b) Growth of urban settlements in India.

(c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.

(d) Informal sector, child labour.

 (e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.

(iv) Politics and Society :

(a) Nation, democracy and citizenship.

(b) Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite.

(c) Regionalism and decentralization of power.

(d) Secularization.

(v) Social Movements in Modern India :

(a) Peasants and farmers movements.

(b) Women’s movement.

(c) Backward classes & Dalit movements.

(d) Environmental movements.

(e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.

(vi) Population Dynamics :

(a) Population size, growth, composition and distribution.

(b) Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.

(c) Population Policy and family planning.

(d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.

(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation :

(a) Crisis of development : displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.

(b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.

(c) Violence against women.

(d) Caste conflicts.

(e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.

(f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.

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