1.Sam Asher, of the World Bank; Paul Novosad of Dartmouth College and Charlie Rafkin of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) published a report on India’s social groups and intergenerational mobility
- There is little intergenerational mobility in India and it has not changed even after economic liberalization
What is intergenerational mobility?
- Intergenerational mobility is about change of status across generations, and change of this economic status is a useful measure for describing “changes in access to opportunity over the long run”
Intergenerational mobility between different groups
- Muslims are the biggest losers in the intergenerational mobility index, falling from 31-34 in the 1960s to 29 in the 1980s
- Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes have done better on the index from 25-29 to 32 over the same period
- Upper castes and OBCs have remained where they were, with mobility shifting from 41-45 to 41.
Intergenerational mobility between north and south India
- Upward mobility is highest in south Indian states like Tamil Nadu and Kerala, lowest in state like Bihar
- South India is overall more inclusive, than north India
- Gujarat stands out as a state with very high economic growth but relatively low Intergenerational mobility.
Intergenerational mobility in villages
- Roads and schools are associated with more upward Intergenerational mobility
- SC/ST segregation is associated with lower levels of upward Intergenerational mobility.
Intergenerational mobility in comparison to African American
- Mobility levels for African Americans in US are better than those for Muslims in India
- Movement of Dalit and Scheduled Tribes is comparable to that of African-Americans
- Urban areas are significantly more mobile than rural areas