Upward mobility: Muslims down; SCs, STs Up; upper-caste & OBCs unchanged

Upward mobility: Muslims down; SCs, STs Up; upper-caste & OBCs unchanged


1.Sam Asher, of the World Bank; Paul Novosad of Dartmouth College and Charlie Rafkin of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) published a report on India’s  social groups and intergenerational mobility

  1. There is little intergenerational mobility in India and it has not changed even after economic liberalization

Important analysis

What is intergenerational mobility?

  1. Intergenerational mobility is about change of status across generations, and change of this economic status is a useful measure for describing “changes in access to opportunity over the long run”

Intergenerational mobility between different groups

  1. Muslims are the biggest losers in the intergenerational mobility index, falling from 31-34 in the 1960s to 29 in the 1980s
  2. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes have done better on the index from 25-29 to 32 over the same period
  3. Upper castes and OBCs have remained where they were, with mobility shifting from 41-45 to 41.

Intergenerational mobility between north and south India

  1. Upward mobility is highest in south Indian states like Tamil Nadu and Kerala, lowest in state like Bihar
  2. South India is overall more inclusive, than north India
  3. Gujarat stands out as a state with very high economic growth but relatively low Intergenerational mobility.

Intergenerational mobility in villages

  1. Roads and schools are associated with more upward Intergenerational mobility
  2. SC/ST segregation is associated with lower levels of upward Intergenerational mobility.

Intergenerational mobility in comparison to African American

  1. Mobility levels for African Americans in US are better than those for Muslims in India
  2. Movement of Dalit and Scheduled Tribes is comparable to that of African-Americans
  3. Urban areas are significantly more mobile than rural areas
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