What are some pre-existing legal provisions for environmental protection in India?

Environment (Protection Act), 1986 – It was enforced to prevent and control hazards of the environment and human life.

Part IV of the Indian constitution (Article 48A – one of the Directive Principles of the state policy), has also empowered the state to create laws and policies to protect and improve the environment and safeguard forests and wildlife.

The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, was one such instance.

Sections 16 and 17 of the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, conferred several functions upon the central and state pollution control boards. Among them is the role of devising plans and advising governments on the control of water pollution.

The environment and forests ministry had also issued coastal regulation zone notification in 2011 to ensure livelihood security to the fishing communities and protection of coastal stretches

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