Captive Mines: Captive mines are the mines that are owned by companies. The coal or mineral produced from these mines is for the exclusive use of the owner company of the mines. The company cannot sell coal or mineral outside. Some electricity generation companies used to have captive mines.
Non- Captive Mines: Non-captive Mines are mines from which the produced coals of minerals could be used for its own consumption and as well as for selling it.
Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, 1957 empowered central to reserve any mine for the particular end-use. These were the captive mines. Now, the Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2021 removed the distinction. Now captive mines will also be able to sell their stock.