Source: The post is based on the article “Women and Men in India 2022: Sex ratio improves but female participation in workforce still low” published in Down To Earth on 21st March 2023
What is the News?
The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has released the Women and Men in India 2022 report.
What is Women and Men in India 2022 Report?
Sex Ratio at birth: The sex ratio at birth went up by three points to 907 in 2018-20 from 904 in 2017-19.
– India’s sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) is expected to improve to 952 by 2036, up significantly from 943 in 2011.
India’s Labour Force Participation Rate(LFPR): It is defined as the percentage of people in the labour force of India in the total population.
– LFPR for those above 15 years of age has been on the rise since 2017-2018. However, women are severely lagging behind men.
– The rate was 77.2 for males and 32.8 for females in 2021-22, with no improvement in this disparity over the years.
Population Growth: Population growth, already on a downward trend from 2.2% in 1971 to 1.1% in 2021, is projected to fall further to 0.58% in 2036.
– In absolute figures, this translates into 1.2 billion people with 48.5% female population as per Census 2011 to an expected 1.5 billion in 2036 with a marginal improvement in the female population share (48.8%).
Age Structure: India’s age and sex structure, as per which the population under 15 years of age is expected to decline and the population above 60 years is expected to increase by 2036.
Fertility rate: The fertility rates for the age groups 20-24 years and 25-29 years declined from 135.4 and 166.0 to 113.6 and 139.6, respectively, between 2016 and 2020.
– This is likely due to economic independence from getting a proper education and securing a job.